Published: Jan 1995
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Cleanup criteria for contaminated soil and groundwater have taken many different forms since the passage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) in 1980, also referred to as the Superfund Act. These forms have included: (1) cleanup to “background” levels; (2) cleanup to levels established by the limits of detection; (3) cleanup to “non-detect” levels; (4) cleanup to levels established by the capability of the best demonstrated available remediation technologies; (5) cleanup to levels established by precedent, for example, Records of Decisions at Superfund Sites, decisions by regulatory authorities at similar sites, etc.; (6) cleanup to existing standards or guidelines, for example, Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) established in the Safe Drinking Water Act, Action Levels in the proposed RCRA Corrective Action Rule, etc.; (7) cleanup to levels protective of potentially exposed individuals as established by a health risk assessment; and (8) combinations of the above.