Published: Jun 2003
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STATIC PETROLEUM MEASUREMENT CAN BE BEST SUMMED UP as the procedures and methods used to determine the quantity of liquid in a storage tank, marine vessel, road transport vehicle, or a rail tank car. In determining the quantity of the liquid in the container, there may be other things in the container that detract from determining the quantity of useable petroleum or petroleum products. They do take up space in the container and therefore must be dealt with as part of any measurement procedure. These sac include water, sediment, sludge, rust scale, and sand just to name as a few. As used here, petroleum products refers to crude oil, therefore the continuous reference to petroleum products. Petroleum products as used here are the liquid stocks (e.g., naphtha, kerosene, fuel oils) derived from the refinery processes from crude oil. It is important to know the total of the liquids and solids in the tank to prevent a tank from overflowing during a receipt. However, the more exacting science of static petroleum measurement is concerned with determining an accurate measure of the quantity of petroleum and petroleum products used in the purchase, sale, or inventory control of the commodit. This section on static petroleum measurement will deal primary with manual gauging techniques and the related sampling and quality tests needed to obtain accurate petroleum and petroleum product quantity measurements. Automatic tank gauging, not discussed in this chapter, relies on the manual gauging, not discussed in this chapter, relies on the manual gauging methods for calibration purposes. Newer techniques for leak detection combine a form of static petroleum measurement with inventory control to assure that tanks and lines storing and moving the products are tight. Leak detection procedures primarily combine automatic gauging methods with computer programming. This chapter is designed to explain how to accurately measure the petroleum and petroleum products, why certain procedures are necessary, sampling and testing processes, and the basics of converting these measures into quantity measurements used in the industry.
Chief, University of Zagreb, Zagreb,