Published: Sep 1996
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This section is included for the convenience of the readers and users of this manual. The primary objective of this section is to provide the researcher who has a limited knowledge of statistics with tools to design studies and to analyze and interpret the results from those studies. It presents the statistical methods needed to analyze the data obtained and to determine the statistical significance of differences found when using the methods described in this manual. Statistical significance will occur when the observed differences among products or panels are greater than the observed differences within products or panels. It is important to note that a statistically significant difference does not necessarily imply an important difference or a difference with practical significance. Similarly, the absence of a statistically significant difference does not mean that one does not exist, particularly if small sample sizes are used. This section also includes a glossary of some frequently encountered statistical terms and symbols. Several references are provided for those who have more complicated problems, who wish to obtain more detail, or who wish to become more generally proficient in statistics.