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The calibration of a thermocouple consists of the determination of its electromotive force (emf) at a sufficient number of known temperatures so that, with some accepted means of interpolation, its emf will be known over the entire temperature range in which it is to be used. The process requires a reference thermometer to indicate temperatures on a standard scale, a means for measuring the emf of the thermocouple, and a controlled environment in which the thermocouple and the reference thermometer can be brought to the same temperature. Some of the more commonly used techniques for accomplishing such calibrations will be discussed in this chapter.