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Although the long standing function of engine coolants is to prevent freezing in the engine cooling system, it also must meet other requirements to be satisfactory. It should: 1) have a high boiling point; 2) prevent corrosion of cooling system metals; 3) effectively transfer heat; 4) be chemically stable; 5) be miscible with water; and 6) be relatively nonflammable. It should not adversely affect other materials in the system, not foam, evaporate, or expand excessively. A number of materials have been used as freezing point depressants, but none satisfy all these requirements. However, usage and extensive testing have established certain coolant base materials as preferable to others.