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THE ASTM INTERNATIONAL STEEL FORGING STAN-dards for the fittings industry are all in dual format, so that forgings can be ordered to the customary English inch/pound units or to SI units. It should be noted that the size and weight of flanges, valves, and fittings for piping applications vary widely; a small threaded pipe coupling might weigh a few ounces (grams) while a valve body with integral flanges would weigh considerably more. The bulk of the standard pipe fittings probably rarely exceeds 1000 lb (454 kg) in weight, and even the very large special pipe fittings shown in Fig. 2.13 did not exceed 2 tons (1.8 t), but these were produced to a pressure vessel forging specification. The fittings specifications were written to cover the manufacture of relatively small standard parts such as flanges, elbows, tees, couplings, and valve bodies with maximum cross section sizes, probably not exceeding 4 in. (100 mm). The testing provisions were written to take these limitations into account and lend due economy to their production. It is this economy that opens some of these specifications to misapplication.