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    Volume 50, Issue 1 (May 2021)

    Investigation of an Ice Hockey Helmet Test Protocol Representing Three Concussion Event Types

    (Received 10 July 2020; accepted 5 March 2021)

    Published Online: 10 May 2021

    CODEN: JTEVAB

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    Abstract

    Although ice hockey helmet standards mitigate the risk of catastrophic head injuries, the risk of concussion remains high. To improve protection, helmets need to be evaluated using impact conditions reflecting how concussions occur in ice hockey. The purpose of this research was to evaluate how three helmet impact tests represent three common concussive events in ice hockey. An ice drop test (representing head-to-ice impacts), 30° and 45° anvil boards drop tests (representing head-to-boards impacts), and medium and high shoulder compliance pneumatic ram tests (representing shoulder-to-head impacts) were performed on a hybrid III headform. Finite element analysis using the University College Dublin Brain Trauma Model was conducted to calculate maximum principal strain (MPS). The mean dynamic response and MPS from each helmet test were compared to a dataset of concussive injury reconstructions. Stepwise forward multiple linear regressions identified the dynamic response variables producing the strongest relationship with MPS for each helmet test and concussion reconstructions. The results indicated that the ice and boards drop test and shoulder ram test had magnitudes and relationships between variables similar to the concussion reconstructions. The proposed testing methodologies in this study closely approximated concussion mechanics in ice hockey and inform improved helmet test standards and design.

    Author Information:

    Meehan, Andrew
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

    Post, Andrew
    School of Human Kinetics, University of OttawaSchool of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, OttawaBelfield, OntarioDublin

    Blaine Hoshizaki, T.
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

    Gilchrist, Michael D.
    School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin


    Stock #: JTE20200436

    ISSN:0090-3973

    DOI: 10.1520/JTE20200436

    Author
    Title Investigation of an Ice Hockey Helmet Test Protocol Representing Three Concussion Event Types
    Symposium ,
    Committee F08