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Volume 7, Issue 5 (October 2018)
Special Issue Paper
Recommended Procedures to Test the Resistance of Materials to Cavitation Erosion
(Received 6 June 2018; accepted 27 August 2018)
Published Online: 26 October 2018
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Predicting cavitation erosion under full-scale operating conditions is difficult and relies on laboratory testing using accelerated methods such as ASTM G32-09, Standard Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus, and ASTM G134-95, Standard Test Method for Erosion of Solid Materials by a Cavitating Liquid Jet. The main difficulty is that full-scale cavitation intensity is often unknown, and correlating cavitation field characteristics of the accelerated method and the full scale is not obvious. The problem is more acute for compliant polymeric coatings, used for protection or repair of parts subject to cavitation. Extensive testing of such materials shows that, unlike metallic surfaces, they are highly resistant to low-intensity cavitation but fail catastrophically when the intensity exceeds a certain threshold. Such behavior creates the risk of accepting a candidate coating for its resistance to cavitation if the coating was tested at a low cavitation intensity not representative of the application field conditions. This highlights the need to conduct tests with a range of cavitation intensities rather than a single intensity. This article uses results from extensive tests under various forms of cavitation to propose a generalized definition of cavitation intensity. It then presents data on the response of both metals and polymeric coatings to various levels of accelerated cavitation. A new method to test the coatings at varying cavitation intensities is then presented. Such tests provide maps of material resistance to different levels of cavitation and are helpful to make an informed decision. The tests also show that during cavitation exposure, the coatings are subjected not only to mechanical stress but also to significant heating, which dynamically modifies their properties during the exposure. Temperature rise in the coating when exposed to cavitation is directly connected to the cavitation intensity to which it is exposed, and this interaction needs to be considered.
Chahine, Georges L.
Dynaflow, Inc., Jessup, MD
Stock #: MPC20180086
Title Recommended Procedures to Test the Resistance of Materials to Cavitation Erosion