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    Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 1978)

    Minimum and Maximum Densities of Granular Materials

    Published Online: 01 March 1978


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    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine minimum and maximum densities of arroyo sand, concrete sand, Ottawa sand, and glass beads. Minimum densities were determined by six different methods using two different molds. Maximum density tests were performed using an electromagnetic vibrator producing vertical simple harmonic motion. The vibration parameters investigated were frequency, acceleration, displacement, and the duration of vibrations.

    The minimum densities obtained by using the ASTM Test for Relative Density of Cohesionless Soils (D 2049-69) were considerably higher than those obtained by using several other simple procedures. Acceleration appeared to be the most important vibration parameter, and accelerations greater than the optimum acceleration (the acceleration at which the maximum density of a soil was obtained) caused a decrease in the maximum density. We recommend that these tests be performed at different amplitudes of acceleration and that the acceleration be continuously monitored during the test. A simple harmonic motion of the soil container gave results which were highly reproducible. We recommend that the soil container be directly attached to the moving core of the electromagnetic vibrator and that the vibrating table be eliminated.

    Author Information:

    Mehdiratta, GR
    Soil engineer, McClelland Engineers, Inc., Houston, Texas

    Triandafilidis, GE
    Professor of civil engineeringmember of ASTM, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Stock #: GTJ10366J


    DOI: 10.1520/GTJ10366J

    Title Minimum and Maximum Densities of Granular Materials
    Symposium ,
    Committee D18