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    Volume 35, Issue 4 (July 1990)

    Document Image Transmission by Telecommunication

    (Received 3 April 1989; accepted 30 August 1989)


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    Photophone® is an image-transmission device which uses telecommunications to transmit questioned documents for examination on an international scale. This instrument, now in use by the Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), is a combination video camera and monitor screen, high-power microscope, diskette storage facility, and thermal printer. The Photophone video camera and zoom lens can be focused close up on a document, or on a particular portion of a document, or even out to infinity to capture a high-fidelity image on the Photophone screen. The video camera can also be attached to a zoom microscope for high-quality, increased-magnification pictures. The image generated on a Photophone screen can be image processed for increased contrast, spot zoom capabilities, and negative images. All pictures can be either stored on diskette or printed for hard copy, or both. Photophone creates for the INS a vitally integrated system for examination of questioned documents and identifying individuals at all U.S. Ports of Entry and offices containing a Photophone.

    Author Information:

    Gernandt, MN
    Forensic document examiner, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Western Regional Office, Laguna Niguel, CA

    Stock #: JFS12914J


    DOI: 10.1520/JFS12914J

    Title Document Image Transmission by Telecommunication
    Symposium ,
    Committee E30