1.1This guide covers additive manufacturing (AM) facility safety management. 1.2In this guide, the various hazards associated with material, equipment, and facility where parts are manufactured using powder-based AM techniques are addressed. 1.3This guide covers the potential hazards and risk mitigation measures required for the safe functioning of the facility. These foreseeable hazards include, but are not limited to, fire and explosion, toxic exposure, and other workplace hazards. 1.4This guide also includes recommendations for the design, installation, and maintenance of AM facilities (powder based). 1.5UnitsThe values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of international Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Keywordsadditive manufacturing; additive manufacturing facility safety; feedstock material; hazards; powder
5.1 A broad classification of AM systems based on the initial form of feedstock material (material with which the part is built) is: 5.1.1 Powder-Based AM SystemsMetals, polymers, and ceramics: 188.8.131.52 Selective laser melting (SLM) (metals); 184.108.40.206 Electron beam melting (EBM) (metals); 220.127.116.11 Directed energy deposition (metals): (1) Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and (2) Rapid plasma deposition (RPD); 18.104.22.168 Selective laser sintering (SLS) (polymers); 22.214.171.124 Multi-jet fusion technology (polymers); and 126.96.36.199 Binder jetting (ceramics). 5.1.2 Liquid-Based (Vat Polymerization) AM SystemsResins and photopolymers: 188.8.131.52 Stereo lithography apparatus (SLA) (photopolymers), 184.108.40.206 Direct light processing (DLP) (photopolymers), and 220.127.116.11 Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) (photopolymers). 5.1.3 Solid-Based AM SystemsWires, laminates, and pellets: 18.104.22.168 Fused deposition modeling (FDM) (polymers-wire), 22.214.171.124 Electron beam wire feed (EBAM) (metals-wire), 126.96.36.199 Laminated object manufacturing (LOM) (laminates-paper and plastics), and 188.8.131.52 Ultrasonic consolidation (UC) (metals). 5.2 AM facilities that use powder bed fusion (PBF) process to create parts make use of metal powders (in SLM) and polymer powders (in SLS) as feedstock material. 5.3 A variety of metals and alloys including aluminum, cobalt, nickel, stainless steel, and titanium are used in the SLM process. The building process generally takes place in an inert atmosphere using gases such as nitrogen, argon, and so forth. Nitrogen is typically used for stainless steel, nickel alloys, and cobalt chrome. Argon is used when fabricating parts using aluminum and titanium powders. The AM system, raw powder, filter system, and ancillary AM equipment (for example, wet separator vacuum) all pose safety and environmental hazards that shall be covered by this guide. 5.4 The SLS process uses various polymer powders such as polyamide 12 (Nylon12), polyamide 11, polyamide 12 with aluminum/carbon fiber/glass bead, polyether ether ketone (PEEK), thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), thermoplastic elastomer (TPE), polycarbonate, polyether block amide (PEBA), and so forth to produce plastic parts. 5.5 The binder jet process uses a number of ceramic powders (in addition to metal powders) for printing of parts. Commonly used ceramic materials include, but are not limited to, aluminum oxide, calcium sulfate, silica, ceramic sand, gypsum, and glass.
The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.Back to Top