ASTM WK70122

    Revision of D4814 - 19 Standard Specification for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel

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    Active Standard: D4814 - 19

    Developed by Subcommittee: D02.A0.01 | Committee D02 | Contact Staff Manager



    WK70122


    Keywords

    alcohol; antiknock index; automotive fuel; automotive gasoline; automotive spark-ignition engine fuel; copper strip corrosion; corrosion; distillation; driveability; Driveability Index; EPA regulations; ethanol; ether; fuel; gasoline; gasoline-alcohol blend; gasoline-ethanol blend; gasoline-ether blend; gasoline-oxygenate blend; induction period; lead; leaded fuel; manganese; methanol; MTBE; octane number; octane requirement; oxidation stability; oxygenate; oxygenate detection; phase separation; phosphorous; solvent-washed gum; sulfur; TV/L= 20 ; unleaded fuel; vapor-liquid ratio; vapor lock; vapor pressure; volatility; water tolerance;;

    Rationale

    In 1972, the EPA determined that emission products of lead additives will impair to a significant degree the performance of emission control systems that include catalytic converters which motor vehicle manufacturers are developing to meet 1975-76 motor vehicle emission standards.1 During the regulatory comment period, the auto industry stated that the limit for lead additives should be set at 0.008 g/L Pb or less to prevent damage to the catalytic converter; (Point B in Figure 1). The EPA settled on a limit of 0.013 g/L Pb, to account for lead contamination in the distribution system at the time; (Point A in Figure 1). Only one petroleum company had substantial experience with unleaded gasoline distribution, and the EPA reported that the company was able to meet the 0.013 g/L standard most of the time.2, 3 As per section X3.2.1 in the appendix of D4814-19, the EPA limit for lead in unleaded gasoline remains at 0.013 g/L, and no intentional addition is allowed. This same value is used as the Pb limit in Table 2. RATIONALE FOR DECREASING THE LEAD LIMIT IN D4814 Its now almost 50 years later, and both vehicle technology and the petroleum product distribution system have evolved. The purpose of this ballot is to decrease the unleaded gasoline Pb limit in D4814-19 from 0.013 g/L to 0.005 g/L. Rationale: By 2025, light-duty vehicles must meet SULEV30 emission levels, on average. This is 99% lower than the 1975 standards on which the current Pb limit was based. Most of the industrialized world now specifies a Pb limit of 0.005g/L. (Point C in Figure 1). For example, the Canadian specification for oxygenated automotive gasoline containing ethanol (E1-E10)CAN/CGSB-3.511has a limit of 0.005g/L using the same methods as D4814-19. See Appendix 1. There is no longer any appreciable Pb contamination in the U.S. pipeline system used to distribute unleaded gasoline, as evidenced by recent fuel surveys; see Appendix 2. The data also indicate that only two of the surveyed countries had some samples that exceeded the proposed 0.005 g/L limit. The Pb limit in Tier-3 and LEV-III certification fuel is 0.0026 g/L; (Point D in Figure 1). This is also the minimum reportable Pb value in both ASTM D5059 and D3237.

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    Work Item Status

    Date Initiated:
    10-07-2019

    Technical Contact:
    Jeff Jetter

    Item:
    004

    Ballot:
    D02.A0 (19-08)

    Status:
    In Balloting