ASTM WK52095

    New Test Method for Determination of an Emission Parameter for Phthalate Esters and Other Non-Phthalate Plasticizers from Planar Polyvinyl Chloride Indoor Materials for Use in Mass Transfer Modeling Calculations

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    Developed by Subcommittee: D22.05 | Committee D22 | Contact Staff Manager



    WK52095

    1. Scope

    1.1 Planar polyvinyl chloride (vinyl) indoor materials may contain semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), such as phthalate esters and other non-phthalate plasticizers, that can emit into indoor air. Phthalate esters and other non-phthalate plasticizers that have been measured using this test method are referred to as SVOCs in the remainder of this test method. 1.2 The SVOCs are present in a wide range of products and not limited to planar polyvinyl chloride (vinyl) indoor materials. This test method highlights vinyl flooring and mattress coverings because of method development and associated quality control data produced from testing these materials. The materials inclusion in this test method does not indicate the SVOC source strength of vinyl flooring and mattress coverings relative to other products. 1.3 This test method describes the design of a 1 L environmental chamber with minimal exposed chamber walls. 1.4 This test method measures the steady-state gas phase concentration of SVOCs in the chamber. Samples of products are tested at specified conditions of temperature, airflow rate, and elapsed time in a specially designed chamber with dry air. Air samples are collected periodically using sorbent sampling tubes at the chamber exhausts at controlled flow rates and then analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). 1.5 This test method determines the SVOC convective gas-phase mass transfer coefficient across the material surface, hm, from the known dimethyl phthalate mass transfer coefficient in the chamber. 1.6 Using the steady-state gas phase concentration and mass transfer coefficient, this test method estimates the gas-phase concentration of SVOC in equilibrium with the material phase (yo) at a specified temperature. The obtained yo data can be used to predict emissions in real indoor environments. However, exposure modeling is beyond the scope of this test method. 1.7 The results for gas phase concentration change in the chamber with time, steady-state gas phase SVOC concentrations (yss), and yo only represent the conditions specified in this test method and are the result of assumptions built into this test method such as instantaneous equilibrium at the source/air interface. The results may not be representative of those collected under other test conditions (that is, temperature or flow rate) or comparable with other SVOC test methods. 1.8 Units--The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measure are used. 1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    Keywords

    plasticizers; SVOCs; indoor air quality; small-scale environmental test chamber

    Rationale

    Referencing methods, which are used for testing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from products, are typically very time-consuming when used for SVOC emission measurements and impractical for screening indoor materials/products. Furthermore, the emissions of SVOCs are controlled by external gas-phase resistance and exterior sinks meaning that the specific emission rate (SER) measured in a test chamber can be quite different from that for the same material in a real indoor environment. Therefore, the SER obtained via the referencing methods is often inapplicable to other conditions and can only be used for comparative studies. Small-scale stainless steel chambers are specially designed and constructed to facilitate rapid steady state and shorten testing times by having a high ratio of emission surface to sorption surface, avoiding mass loss of SVOCs onto sampling pathways, and improving air mixing inside the chamber. Furthermore, the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs in equilibrium with the material phase (y0), which is the key parameter controlling SVOC emissions, can be determined based on the measurements and used to estimate the expected contribution of SVOC emissions from the tested material/product to real indoor environments. Finally, emission data may also be used to compare and categorize different indoor materials/products. This test method would give manufacturers and government agency to examine the impact of various product formulations on indoor air quality in a uniform and repeatable way.

    The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.

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    Work Item Status

    Date Initiated:
    11-05-2015

    Technical Contact:
    Dustin Poppendieck

    Item:
    006

    Ballot:
    D22 (21-01)

    Status:
    Ballot Item Approved as D8345-2021 and Pending Publication