1.1 This method describes the design, construction, performance evaluation of a small-scale environmental chamber apparatus and associated procedures for rapidly determining emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from vinyl flooring and mattress coverings using the chamber. The gas-phase concentration of SVOCs in equilibrium with the material phase (y0) at a specified temperature can be quantified after the gas phase SVOC concentration in the chamber reaches steady state. y0, is one of the most important parameters controlling SVOC emissions from materials and is required to model SVOC emissions in full scale environments. 1.2 Samples of test products are maintained at specified conditions of temperature, airflow rate, and elapsed time in a chamber. Air samples are collected periodically using sorbent sampling tubes at the chamber exhausts at controlled flow rates, and then analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS). 1.3 This method is intended specifically for vinyl flooring and mattress coverings. Although the method may also be applicable to other flat, solid products and materials, such as board materials, wallpapers, insulation materials, artificial leather sheets, and similar materials/products, they are not within the scope of this test method. 1.4 This method covers SVOC additives used in vinyl flooring and mattress coverings, such as phthalate esters and other plasticizers. 1.5 The method can be applied to both new and old materials/products. Caution should be taken because the measured y0 values can change given the age of the material. 1.6 The results of gas-phase SVOC concentration change in the chamber with time, steady state gas phase SVOC concentration (yss), y0 and emission rate, only represent the conditions specified in the test method. The results may not be representative of other test conditions (i.e. temperature or flow rate) or comparable with other test methods. 1.7 The value of y0 dominates SVOC emissions in real indoor environments at specified temperatures. The obtained y0 data can be used to predict emissions in real indoor environments or other environmental conditions. However, this application is beyond the scope of this method. 1.8 Air sample collection and chemical analysis are dependent upon the nature of the SVOCs targeted and are described only to detail that is require for this method. The procedures described in Practice D4861-11 and EPA Method 8270C for analysis of SVOCs and in Test Method D7339 and Practice D6196 for analysis of VOCs are applicable to this method. 1.9 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measure are used. 1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Keywordssemi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), plasticizers, flame retardants, phthalates, Emissions, indoor air quality, small-scale environmental test chamber, vinyl flooring, mattress covers.
Referencing methods, which are used for testing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from products, are typically very time-consuming when used for SVOC emission measurements and impractical for screening indoor materials/products. Furthermore, the emissions of SVOCs are controlled by external gas-phase resistance and exterior sinks, meaning that the specific emission rate (SER) measured in a test chamber can be quite different from that for the same material in a real indoor environment. Therefore, the SER obtained via the referencing methods is often inapplicable to other conditions, and can only be used for comparative studies. Small-scale stainless steel chambers are specially designed and constructed to facilitate rapid steady state and shorten testing times, by having a high ratio of emission surface to sorption surface, avoiding mass loss of SVOCs onto sampling pathways, and improving air mixing inside the chamber. Furthermore, the gas-phase concentration of SVOCs in equilibrium with the material phase (y0), which is the key parameter controlling SVOC emissions, can be determined based on the measurements and used to estimate the expected contribution of SVOC emissions from the tested material/product to real indoor environments. Finally, emission data may also be used to compare and categorize different indoor materials/products. This method would give manufacturers and government agency to examine the impact of various product formulations on indoor air quality in a uniform and repeatable way.
The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.Back to Top
Draft Under Development