ASTM WK30360

    New Test Methods for Deep Foundations under Bidirectional Static Axial Compressive Load

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    Developed by Subcommittee: D18.11 | Committee D18 | Contact Staff Manager


    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods measure the axial deflection of a single, deep foundation element when loaded in bidirectional static axial compression using an embedded bidirectional jack assembly. These test methods apply to all deep foundations, referred to herein as piles, which function in a manner similar to driven piles, cast in place piles, or barrettes, regardless of their method of installation. The test results may not represent the long-term performance of a deep foundation. 1.2 These test methods provide minimum requirements for testing deep foundations under bidirectional static axial compressive load. Plans, specifications, and/or provisions prepared by a qualified engineer may provide additional requirements and procedures as needed to satisfy the objectives of a particular test program. The engineer in responsible charge of the foundation design, referred to herein as the Engineer, shall approve any deviations, deletions, or additions to the requirements of these test methods. 1.3 These test methods provide the following test procedures: Procedure A--Quick Test and Procedure B--Extended Test (optional). 1.4 Apparatus and procedures herein designated optional may produce different test results and may be used only when approved by the Engineer. The word shall indicates a mandatory provision and the word should indicates a recommended or advisory provision. Imperative sentences indicate mandatory provisions. 1.5 A qualified geotechnical engineer shall interpret the test results obtained from the procedures of these test methods so as to predict the actual performance and adequacy of piles used in the constructed foundation. 1.6 A qualified engineer shall design and approve the load test configuration and test procedures. 1.7 The text of this standard references notes and footnotes that provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the standard. This standard also includes illustrations and appendices intended only for explanatory or advisory use. 1.8 Units--The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units [presented in brackets] are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method. 1.9 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F=ma) calculations are involved. 1.10 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026. 1.11 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in theses test methods are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of these test methods to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design. 1.12 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in these test methods is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses or both. How one applies the results obtained using these test methods is beyond its scope. 1.13 ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in these test methods. Users of these test methods are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. 1.14 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    The bidirectional load test has become the test method of choice for high-capacity load testing around the world. The specific method is currently not described in any standard that is known.


    axial static pile capacity; deep foundation; field testing; bi-directional load test; embedded jack; loading procedure; displacement; movement; side friction; side shear; end bearing

    The title and scope are in draft form and are under development within this ASTM Committee.

    Citing ASTM Standards
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    Work Item Status

    Date Initiated:

    Technical Contact:
    Robert Simpson


    D18.11 (17-05)

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