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1.1 Purpose—The purpose of this guide is to provide practical guidance and a useful process for conducting a vapor encroachment screen (VES) on a property parcel involved in a real estate transaction in the United States of America with respect to chemicals of concern (COC) that may migrate as vapors onto a property as a result of contaminated soil and groundwater on or near the property. This guide may be used in conjunction with Practice E1527 but does not alter or in any way define the scope of that practice. In addition, performance of this guide is not a requirement of and does not constitute, expand, or in any way define “all appropriate inquiry” as defined and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the regulations there under, including 40 CFR Sec. 312.11.
1.1.1 Vapor Encroachment Condition (VEC)—The goal of conducting a VES, as established by this guide, on a parcel of property is to identify a vapor encroachment condition (VEC), which is the presence or likely presence of COC vapors in the sub-surface of the target property (TP) caused by the release of vapors from contaminated soil or groundwater either on or near the TP as identified by Tier 1 (see Section 8) or Tier 2 (see Section 9) procedures.
1.1.2 Federal, State, and Local Environmental Laws—This guide does not address requirements of any federal, state, or local laws with respect to vapor intrusion. Users are cautioned that federal, state, and local laws, regulations, or policy may impose vapor encroachment screening or vapor intrusion assessment obligations that are beyond the scope of this guide (information is provided in Appendix X5 and Appendix X9). Users should also be aware that there may be other legal obligations, for example, disclosure, with regard to COC or COC vapors discovered on the TP that are not addressed in this guide.
1.1.3 Documentation—The scope of this guide includes investigation and reporting actions. Sufficient documentation of all sources, records, and resources used in the investigation procedures that are set out in this guide should be provided in the VES report (refer to Section 10).
1.2 Objectives—Objectives guiding the development of this guide are: (1) to synthesize and put into writing a practical guide for conducting a VES on a property involved in a real estate transaction and (2) to provide that the process to screen for a VEC is practical and reasonable.
1.3 Considerations Outside the Scope—The use of this guide is strictly limited to the scope set forth in this section. Section 11 of this guide identifies, for informational purposes, certain tasks (not an all-inclusive list) that may be conducted on a property that are beyond the scope of this guide but that may warrant consideration by parties to a real estate transaction. Whether to include an investigation of any such conditions in the environmental professional's scope of services should be evaluated by the user and should be agreed upon between the user and environmental professional as additional services beyond the scope of this guide before initiation of a Phase I ESA conducted in conjunction with a VES or initiation of an independent VES.
1.4 Units—The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard.
1.5 Organization of This Guide—This guide has eleven sections and nine appendices. The appendices are included for informational purposes and are not part of the procedures prescribed in this guide.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E1527 Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase I Environmental Site Assessment Process
E1903 Practice for Environmental Site Assessments: Phase II Environmental Site Assessment Process
Federal Statutes42 U.S.C. U.S. Code, Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, Solid Waste Disposal, Identification and Listing of Hazardous Wastes, 6901, 6903, 6921; 42 U.S.C. U.S. Code, Title 42, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, 9605, 9601, et seq.
USEPA Documents40 CFR Title 40, Protection of Environment, Chapter 1, Environmental Protection Agency, Parts 300, 302, 312, 355, et seq. OSWER Publication 9200.2-154, OSWER Technical Guide for Assessing and Mitigating the Vapor Intrusion Pathway from Subsurface Vapor Sources to Indoor Air, June 2015
ICS Number Code 91.010.10 (Legal aspects)
UNSPSC Code 77101700(Environmental advisory services); 77101500(Environmental impact assessment)
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ASTM E2600-10, Standard Guide for Vapor Encroachment Screening on Property Involved in Real Estate Transactions, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010, www.astm.orgBack to Top