ASTM E18-08b

    Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials


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    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the Rockwell hardness and the Rockwell superficial hardness of metallic materials by the Rockwell indentation hardness principle. This standard provides the requirements for Rockwell hardness machines and the procedures for performing Rockwell hardness tests.

    1.2 This standard includes additional requirements in annexes:

    Verification of Rockwell Hardness Testing MachinesAnnex A1
    Rockwell Hardness Standardizing MachinesAnnex A2
    Standardization of Rockwell IndentersAnnex A3
    Standardization of Rockwell Hardness Test BlocksAnnex A4
    Guidelines for Determining the Minimum Thickness of a
    Test Piece
    Annex A5
    Hardness Value Corrections When Testing on Convex
    Cylindrical Surfaces
    Annex A6

    1.3 This standard includes nonmandatory information in appendixes which relates to the Rockwell hardness test.

    List of ASTM Standards Giving Hardness Values Corresponding
    to Tensile Strength
    Appendix X1
    Examples of Procedures for Determining Rockwell
    Hardness Uncertainty
    Appendix X2

    1.4 UnitsAt the time the Rockwell hardness test was developed, the force levels were specified in units of kilograms-force (kgf) and the indenter ball diameters were specified in units of inches (in.). This standard specifies the units of force and length in the International System of Units (SI); that is, force in Newtons (N) and length in millimeters (mm). However, because of the historical precedent and continued common usage, force values in kgf units and ball diameters in inch units are provided for information and much of the discussion in this standard refers to these units.

    1.5 The test principles, testing procedures, and verification procedures are essentially identical for both the Rockwell and Rockwell superficial hardness tests. The significant differences between the two tests are that the test forces are smaller for the Rockwell superficial test than for the Rockwell test. The same type and size indenters may be used for either test, depending on the scale being employed. Accordingly, throughout this standard, the term Rockwell will imply both Rockwell and Rockwell superficial unless stated otherwise.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A370 Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

    A623 Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements

    A623M Specification for Tin Mill Products, General Requirements [Metric]

    A883 Test Method for Ferrimagnetic Resonance Linewidth and Gyromagnetic Ratio of Nonmetallic Magnetic Materials

    A956 Test Method for Leeb Hardness Testing of Steel Products

    A1038 Test Method for Portable Hardness Testing by the Ultrasonic Contact Impedance Method

    B19 Specification for Cartridge Brass Sheet, Strip, Plate, Bar, and Disks

    B36/B36M Specification for Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, And Rolled Bar

    B96/B96M Specification for Copper-Silicon Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar for General Purposes and Pressure Vessels

    B103/B103M Specification for Phosphor Bronze Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B121/B121M Specification for Leaded Brass Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B122/B122M Specification for Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloy (Nickel Silver), and Copper-Nickel Alloy Plate, Sheet, Strip, and Rolled Bar

    B130 Specification for Commercial Bronze Strip for Bullet Jackets

    B134/B134M Specification for Brass Wire

    B152/B152M Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip, Plate, and Rolled Bar

    B370 Specification for Copper Sheet and Strip for Building Construction

    B647 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Aluminum Alloys by Means of a Webster Hardness Gage

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E74 Practices for Calibration and Verification for Force-Measuring Instruments

    E92 Test Methods for Vickers Hardness and Knoop Hardness of Metallic Materials

    E110 Test Method for Rockwell and Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials by Portable Hardness Testers

    E140 Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, Scleroscope Hardness, and Leeb Hardness

    E384 Test Method for Microindentation Hardness of Materials

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard

    SAE J417

    ISO Standards

    ISO 6508-1 Metallic MaterialsRockwell Hardness TestPart 1: Test Method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.

    ISO/IEC 17025

    American Bearings Manufacturer Association Standard

    ABMA 10-1989


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 41114611(Hardness testers)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/E0018-08B

    Citation Format

    ASTM E18-08b, Standard Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials , ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org

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