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1.1 This test method describes two procedures, A and B, for determining the electrical breakdown voltage of insulating liquid specimens. The breakdown test uses ac voltage in the power-frequency range from 45 to 65 Hz.
1.2 This test method is used to judge if the disk electrode breakdown voltage requirements are met for insulating liquids, as delivered from the manufacturer, that have never been filtered or dried. See Specification D 3487, Specification D 4652, and Guide D 5222 for the minimum specified electrical breakdown. This test method should be used as recommended by professional organization standards such as IEEE C57.106.
1.3 Limitations of the Procedures
1.3.1 The sensitivity of this test method to the general population of contaminants present in a liquid sample decreases as applied test voltages used in this test method become greater than approximately 25 kV rms.
1.3.2 If the concentration of water in the sample at room temperature is less than 60 % of saturation, the sensitivity of this test method to the presence of water is decreased. For further information refer to RR: D27-1006.
1.3.3 The suitability for this test method has not been determined for a liquid's viscosity higher than 900 cSt at 40C.
1.4 Procedure Applications
1.4.1 Procedure A
Procedure A is used to determine the breakdown voltage of liquids in which any insoluble breakdown products easily settle during the interval between the required repeated breakdown tests. These liquids include petroleum oils, hydrocarbons, and askarels (PCB) used as insulating and cooling liquids in transformers, cables, and similar apparatus.
Procedure A may be used to obtain the dielectric breakdown of silicone fluid as specified in Test Methods D 2225, provided the discharge energy into the sample is less than 20 mJ (milli joule) per breakdown for five consecutive breakdowns.
1.4.2 Procedure BThis procedure is used to determine the breakdown voltage of liquids in which any insoluble breakdown products do not completely settle from the space between the disks during the 1-min interval required in Procedure A. Procedure B, modified in accordance with Section 17 of Test Methods D 2225, is acceptable for testing silicone dielectric liquids if the requirements of can not be achieved.
18.104.22.168 Procedure B should also be applied for the determination of the breakdown voltage of liquid samples containing insoluble materials that settle from the specimen during testing. These may include samples taken from circuit breakers, load tap changers, and other liquids heavily contaminated with insoluble particulate material. These examples represent samples that may have large differences between replicate tests. The use of Procedure B will result in a more accurate value of breakdown voltage when testing such liquids.
22.214.171.124 Use Procedure B to establish the breakdown voltage of an insulating liquid where an ASTM specification does not exist or when developing a value for an ASTM guide or standard. Procedure A may be used once the single operator precision of has been demonstrated.
1.5 Both the SI and inch-pound units are equally acceptable.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D923 Practices for Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids
D1816 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Oils of Petroleum Origin Using VDE Electrodes
D2225 Test Methods for Silicone Fluids Used for Electrical Insulation
D2864 Terminology Relating to Electrical Insulating Liquids and Gases
D3487 Specification for Mineral Insulating Oil Used in Electrical Apparatus
D4652 Specification for Silicone Fluid Used for Electrical Insulation
D5222 Specification for High Fire-Point Mineral Electrical Insulating Oils
IEEE StandardsC57.106 Guide for Acceptance and Maintenance of Insulating Oil in Equipment
ICS Number Code 29.040.10 (Insulating oils)
UNSPSC Code 15121505(Transformer oil or insulating oil)
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ASTM D877-02e1, Standard Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage of Insulating Liquids Using Disk Electrodes, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2002, www.astm.orgBack to Top