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1.1 This test method determines the damage resistance of multidirectional polymer matrix composite laminated plates subjected to a drop-weight impact event. The composite material forms are limited to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites, with the range of acceptable test laminates and thicknesses defined in 8.2.
1.2 A flat, rectangular composite plate is subjected to an out-of-plane, concentrated impact using a drop-weight device with a hemispherical impactor. The potential energy of the drop-weight, as defined by the mass and drop height of the impactor, is specified prior to test. Equipment and procedures are provided for optional measurement of contact force and velocity during the impact event. The damage resistance is quantified in terms of the resulting size and type of damage in the specimen.
1.3 The test method may be used to screen materials for damage resistance, or to inflict damage into a specimen for subsequent damage tolerance testing. When the impacted plate is tested in accordance with Test Method D 7137/D 7137M, the overall test sequence is commonly referred to as the Compression After Impact (CAI) method. Quasi-static indentation per Test Method D 6264 may be used as an alternate method of creating damage from an out-of-plane force and measuring damage resistance properties.
1.4 The damage resistance properties generated by this test method are highly dependent upon several factors, which include specimen geometry, layup, impactor geometry, impactor mass, impact force, impact energy, and boundary conditions. Thus, results are generally not scalable to other configurations, and are particular to the combination of geometric and physical conditions tested.
1.5 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
D3171 Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials
D3763 Test Method for High Speed Puncture Properties of Plastics Using Load and Displacement Sensors
D3878 Terminology for Composite Materials
D5229/D5229M Test Method for Moisture Absorption Properties and Equilibrium Conditioning of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials
D5687/D5687M Guide for Preparation of Flat Composite Panels with Processing Guidelines for Specimen Preparation
D6264/D6264M Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite to a Concentrated Quasi-Static Indentation Force
D7137/D7137M Test Method for Compressive Residual Strength Properties of Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates
D7766/D7766M Practice for Damage Resistance Testing of Sandwich Constructions
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E6 Terminology Relating to Methods of Mechanical Testing
E18 Test Methods for Rockwell Hardness of Metallic Materials
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics
E1309 Guide for Identification of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials in Databases
E1434 Guide for Recording Mechanical Test Data of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials in Databases
E2533 Guide for Nondestructive Testing of Polymer Matrix Composites Used in Aerospace Applications
Military StandardsCMH-17-3G Composite Materials Handbook, Volume 3--Polymer Matrix Composites Materials Usage, Design and Analysis Available from SAE International (SAE), 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001, http://www.sae.org. MIL-HDBK-728/1 Nondestructive Testing Available from U.S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory, Watertown, MA 02471. MIL-HDBK-731A Nondestructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials--Thermography MIL-HDBK-732A Nondestructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials--Acoustic Emission MIL-HDBK-733A Nondestructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials--Radiography MIL-HDBK-787A Nondestructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials--Ultrasonics NASA Reference Publication 1092 Standard Tests for Toughened Resin Composites, Revised Edition, July 1983 Available from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681-2199.
ICS Number Code 83.120 (Reinforced plastics)
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ASTM D7136 / D7136M-07, Standard Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite to a Drop-Weight Impact Event, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007, www.astm.orgBack to Top