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1.1 These test methods provide a qualitative indication of the natural dispersive characteristics of clayey soils.
1.2 These test methods are not applicable for soils with less than 12 % fraction finer than 0.005 mm and with a plasticity index less than or equal to 8.
1.3 The crumb test method has some limitations in its usefulness as an indicator of dispersive clay. A dispersive soil may sometimes give a nondispersive reaction in the crumb test. Soils containing kaolinite with known field dispersion problems have shown nondispersive reactions in the crumb test (1). However, if the crumb test indicates dispersion, the soil is probably dispersive.
1.4 Oven-dried soil should not be used to prepare crumb test specimens, as irreversible changes could occur to the soil pore-water physicochemical properties responsible for dispersion (2).
1.5 The crumb test method, while a good quick indication of dispersive clay, should usually be run in conjunction with a pinhole test and a double hydrometer test, Test Methods D4647 and D4221, respectively.
Note 1--In some cases, the results of the pinhole, crumb, and double-hydrometer test methods may disagree. Crumb test methods are a better indicator of dispersive clays than of nondispersive clays (3).
1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
D2216 Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass
D2487 Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System)
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D4221 Test Method for Dispersive Characteristics of Clay Soil by Double Hydrometer
D4318 Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
D4542 Test Methods for Pore Water Extraction and Determination of the Soluble Salt Content of Soils by Refractometer
D4647/D4647M Test Methods for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D7928 Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using the Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis
E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
E2251 Specification for Liquid-in-Glass ASTM Thermometers with Low-Hazard Precision Liquids
ICS Number Code 13.080.20 (Physical properties of soil)
UNSPSC Code 11111800(Clays)
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ASTM D6572-00, Standard Test Methods for Determining Dispersive Characteristics of Clayey Soils by the Crumb Test, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, www.astm.orgBack to Top