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    ASTM D6300-20b

    Historical Standard: Práctica estándar para la determinación de los datos de precisión y sesgo a utilizar en métodos de prueba de productos derivados del petróleo, combustibles líquidos y lubricantes

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    Significance and Use

    5.1 ASTM test methods are frequently intended for use in the manufacture, selling, and buying of materials in accordance with specifications and therefore should provide such precision that when the test is properly performed by a competent operator, the results will be found satisfactory for judging the compliance of the material with the specification. Statements addressing precision and bias are required in ASTM test methods. These then give the user an idea of the precision of the resulting data and its relationship to an accepted reference material or source (if available). Statements addressing determinability are sometimes required as part of the test method procedure in order to provide early warning of a significant degradation of testing quality while processing any series of samples.

    5.2 Repeatability and reproducibility are defined in the precision section of every Committee D02 test method. Determinability is defined above in Section 3. The relationship among the three measures of precision can be tabulated in terms of their different sources of variation (see Table 1).

    5.2.1 When used, determinability is a mandatory part of the Procedure section. It will allow operators to check their technique for the sequence of operations specified. It also ensures that a result based on the set of determined values is not subject to excessive variability from that source.

    5.3 A bias statement furnishes guidelines on the relationship between a set of test results and a related set of accepted reference values. When the bias of a test method is known, a compensating adjustment can be incorporated in the test method.

    5.4 This practice is intended for use by D02 subcommittees in determining precision estimates and bias statements to be used in D02 test methods. Its procedures correspond with ISO 4259 and are the basis for the Committee D02 computer software, Calculation of Precision Data: Petroleum Test Methods. The use of this practice replaces that of Research Report RR:D02-1007.2

    5.5 Standard practices for the calculation of precision have been written by many committees with emphasis on their particular product area. One developed by Committee E11 on Statistics is Practice E691. Practice E691 and this practice differ as outlined in Table 2.

    1. Alcance

    1.1 Esta práctica abarca las preparaciones y la planificación necesarias para conducir programas entre laboratorios destinados al desarrollo de cálculos de precisión (determinabilidad, repetibilidad y reproducibilidad) y de sesgo (absoluto y relativo), y presenta la fraseología estándar para incorporar dicha información a métodos de prueba estándar.

    1.2 Generalmente, esta práctica se limita a opciones homogéneas de productos derivados del petróleo, combustibles líquidos y lubricantes que normalmente no presentan problemas graves de muestreo (como, por ejemplo, heterogeneidad o inestabilidad).

    1.3 Es posible que esta práctica no sea adecuada para productos que presentan problemas de muestreo como los que se describen en 1.2, productos sólidos o semisólidos como el coque de petróleo, breas industriales, ceras de parafina, grasas o lubricantes sólidos cuando las propiedades heterogéneas de la sustancia generan problemas de muestreo. En dichos casos, consulte a un estadístico capacitado.

    1.4 Este estándar internacional fue desarrollado de conformidad con principios de estandarización reconocidos a nivel internacional y establecidos en la Decisión sobre Principios para el Desarrollo de Estándares, Guías y Recomendaciones Internacionales (Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations) publicada por el Comité de Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (Technical Barriers to Trade, TBT) de la Organización Mundial del Comercio.

    2. Documentos Citados

    D3244 Practice for Utilization of Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    D3606 Test Method for Determination of Benzene and Toluene in Spark Ignition Fuels by Gas Chromatography

    D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material

    D7915 Practice for Application of Generalized Extreme Studentized Deviate (GESD) Technique to Simultaneously Identify Multiple Outliers in a Data Set

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E29 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specifications

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    ISO 4259 Petroleum Products-Determination and Application of Precision Data in Relation to Methods of Test Available from American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 W. 43rd St., 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036, http://www.ansi.org.