ASTM D6286-98(2006)

    Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide provides descriptions of various drilling methods for environmental site characterization along with advantages and disadvantages associated with each method discussed. A comprehensive description of these drilling methods can be found in individual ASTM standards, see Section 2. This guide is intended to aid in the selection of drilling method(s) for environmental soil and rock borings and the installation of monitoring wells and other water-quality monitoring devices.

    1.2 This guide does not address methods of well construction, well development, or well completion. These topics are covered in other ASTM documents, see Section 2.

    1.3 This guide cannot address all possible subsurface conditions that may occur such as, geologic, topographic, climatic, or anthropogenic. Site evaluation for engineering, design, and construction purposes is addressed in Guide D420.

    1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Because dimensions of materials used in the drilling industry are given in inch-pound units by convention, inch-pound units also are used in this guide.

    1.5 This guide does not specifically address methods of lithologic sample collection, such as coring, that may require the use of a specific drilling method. Other ASTM guides should be consulted for sampling methods (see Guide D6169) and equipment necessary for specific projects.

    1.6 This guide does not purport to comprehensively address all of the methods and the issues associated with drilling for environmental purposes. Users should seek qualified professionals for decisions as to the proper equipment and methods that would be most successful for their site investigation. Other methods may be available for drilling and qualified professionals should have flexibility to exercise judgment as to possible alternatives not covered in this guide. The guide is current at the time of issue, but new alternative methods may become available prior to revisions; therefore, users should consult with manufacturers or producers prior to specifying program requirements.

    1.7 Pertinent guides addressing specific drilling methods, equipment and procedures are listed in 2.1. A comprehensive list of guides, methods, practices, and terminology for drilling is contained in Guide D5730. Other documents covering procedures for environmental site investigations with specific objectives or in particular geographic settings may be available from federal, state, and other agencies or organizations. The appropriate agency or organization should be contacted to determine the availability and most current edition of such documents.

    1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

    1.9 This guide offers an organized collection of information or a series of options and does not recommend a specific course of action. This document cannot replace education and experience and should be used in conjunction with professional judgement. Not all aspects of this guide may be applicable in all circumstances. This ASTM standard is not intended to represent or replace the standard of care by which the adequacy of a given professional service must be judged, nor should this document be applied without consideration of a project's many unique aspects. The word Standard in the title of this document means only that the document has been approved through the ASTM consensus process.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D420 Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D1586 Test Method for Penetration Test (SPT) and Split-Barrel Sampling of Soils

    D1587 Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes

    D2113 Practice for Rock Core Drilling and Sampling of Rock for Site Investigation

    D2488 Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure)

    D3550 Practice for Thick Wall, Ring-Lined, Split Barrel, Drive Sampling of Soils

    D5092 Practice for Design and Installation of Ground Water Monitoring Wells

    D5730 Guide for Site Characterization for Environmental Purposes With Emphasis on Soil, Rock, the Vadose Zone and Groundwater

    D5753 Guide for Planning and Conducting Borehole Geophysical Logging

    D5781 Guide for Use of Dual-Wall Reverse-Circulation Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5782 Guide for Use of Direct Air-Rotary Drilling for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5783 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Drilling with Water-Based Drilling Fluid for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5784 Guide for Use of Hollow-Stem Augers for Geoenvironmental Exploration and the Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5872 Guide for Use of Casing Advancement Drilling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5875 Guide for Use of Cable-Tool Drilling and Sampling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D5876 Guide for Use of Direct Rotary Wireline Casing Advancement Drilling Methods for Geoenvironmental Exploration and Installation of Subsurface Water-Quality Monitoring Devices

    D6001 Guide for Direct-Push Ground Water Sampling for Environmental Site Characterization

    D6151 Practice for Using Hollow-Stem Augers for Geotechnical Exploration and Soil Sampling

    D6169 Guide for Selection of Soil and Rock Sampling Devices Used With Drill Rigs for Environmental Investigations

    D6429 Guide for Selecting Surface Geophysical Methods

    D6910 Test Method for Marsh Funnel Viscosity of Clay Construction Slurries


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.080.99 (Other standards related to soil quality); 73.100.30 (Equipment for drilling and mine excavation)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 20110000(Well drilling and operation equipment); 81151902(Geophysical exploration)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D6286-98R06

    Citation Format

    ASTM D6286-98(2006), Standard Guide for Selection of Drilling Methods for Environmental Site Characterization, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2006, www.astm.org

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