ASTM D4428/D4428M-00

    Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing


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    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods are limited to the determination of horizontally traveling compression (P) and shear (S) seismic waves at test sites consisting primarily of soil materials (as opposed to rock). A preferred test method intended for use on critical projects where the highest quality data must be obtained is included. Also included is an optional method intended for use on projects which do not require measurements of a high degree of precision.

    1.2 Various applications of the data will be addressed and acceptable interpretation procedures and equipment, such as seismic sources, receivers, and recording systems will be discussed. Other items addressed include borehole spacing, drilling, casing, grouting, deviation surveys, and actual test conduct. Data reduction and interpretation is limited to the identification of various seismic wave types, apparent velocity relation to true velocity, example computations, effective borehole spacing, use of Snell's law of refraction, assumptions, and computer programs.

    1.3 It is important to note that more than one acceptable device can be used to generate a high-quality P wave or S wave, or both. Further, several types of commercially available receivers and recording systems can also be used to conduct an acceptable crosshole survey. Consequently, these test methods primarily concern the actual test procedure, data interpretation, and specifications for equipment which will yield uniform test results.

    1.4 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other.

    1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids

    D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction

    D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D4428_D4428M-00

    Citation Format

    ASTM D4428 / D4428M-00, Standard Test Methods for Crosshole Seismic Testing, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, www.astm.org

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