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1.1 The test methods described in this standard measure the lateral deflection of a vertical or inclined deep foundation when subjected to lateral loading. These methods apply to all deep foundations, referred to herein as "pile(s)," that function in a manner similar to driven piles or cast in place piles, regardless of their method of installation, and may be used for testing single piles or pile groups. The test results may not represent the long-term performance of a deep foundation.
1.2 These test methods provide minimum requirements for testing deep foundations under lateral load. Plans, specifications, provisions, or combinations thereof prepared by a qualified engineer may provide additional requirements and procedures as needed to satisfy the objectives of a particular test program. The engineer in responsible charge of the foundation design, referred to herein as the engineer, shall approve any deviations, deletions, or additions to the requirements of these test methods.
1.3 These test methods allow the following test procedures:
1.4 Apparatus and procedures herein designated "optional" may produce different test results and may be used only when approved by the engineer. The word "shall" indicates a mandatory provision, and the word "should" indicates a recommended or advisory provision. Imperative sentences indicate mandatory provisions.
1.5 A qualified geotechnical engineer should interpret the test results obtained from the procedures of these test methods so as to predict the actual performance and adequacy of piles used in the constructed foundation. See for comments regarding some of the factors influencing the interpretation of test results.
1.6 A qualified engineer shall design and approve all loading apparatus, loaded members, support frames, and test procedures. The text of these test methods references notes and footnotes which provide explanatory material. These notes and footnotes (excluding those in tables and figures) shall not be considered as requirements of the test methods. These test methods also include illustrations and appendices intended only for explanatory or advisory use.
1.7 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
1.8 The gravitational system of inch-pound units is used when dealing with inch-pound units. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight), while the unit for mass is slugs. The rationalized slug unit is not given, unless dynamic (F=ma) calculations are involved.
1.9 All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026.
1.10 The method used to specify how data are collected, calculated, or recorded in these test methods is not directly related to the accuracy to which the data can be applied in design or other uses, or both. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.
1.11 ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A36/A36M Specification for Carbon Structural Steel
A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General Applications
A572/A572M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel
D653 Terminology Relating to Soil, Rock, and Contained Fluids
D1143 Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load
D3689 Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under Static Axial Tensile Load
D3740 Practice for Minimum Requirements for Agencies Engaged in Testing and/or Inspection of Soil and Rock as Used in Engineering Design and Construction
D5882 Test Method for Low Strain Impact Integrity Testing of Deep Foundations
D6026 Practice for Using Significant Digits in Geotechnical Data
D6760 Test Method for Integrity Testing of Concrete Deep Foundations by Ultrasonic Crosshole Testing
American Society of Mechanical Engineer StandardsASME B89.1.10.M Dial Indicators (For Linear Measurements)
ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
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ASTM D3966-07, Standard Test Methods for Deep Foundations Under Lateral Load, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007, www.astm.orgBack to Top