ASTM D2983-16

    Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method covers the use of rotational viscometers with an appropriate torque range and specific spindle for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscosity of automatic transmission fluids, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and some lubricants. This test method covers the viscosity range of 300 mPa·s to 900 000 mPa·s

    1.2 This test method was previously titled “Low-Temperature Viscosity of Lubricants Measured by Brookfield Viscometer.” In the lubricant industry, D2983 test results have often been referred to as “Brookfield2 Viscosity” which implies a viscosity determined by this method.

    1.3 This test method contains three procedures: Procedure A is used when only an air bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure B is used when a mechanically refrigerated programmable liquid bath is used to cool samples in preparation for viscosity measurement. Procedure C is used when a mechanically refrigerated constant temperature liquid bath is used to cool samples by means of a simulated air cell (SimAir)3 Cell in preparation for viscosity measurement.

    1.4 The range of viscosity used to generate the precision data for this test method was from 300 mPa·s to 170 000 mPa·s at test temperatures from –12 °C to –40 °C. The ILS also included viscosities greater than 500 000 mPa·s and temperatures down to –55 °C and are included in Appendix X5. Appendix X4 lists another interlaboratory study that specifically targeted hydraulic fluid ranging from 500 mPa·s to 1700 mPa·s.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.5.1 The test method uses the SI unit, milliPascal-second (mPa·s), as the unit of viscosity. (1 cP = 1 mPa·s).

    1.6 WARNING—Mercury has been designated by many regulatory agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website—http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm—for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury and/or mercury containing products into your state or country may be prohibited by law.

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D341 Practice for Viscosity-Temperature Charts for Liquid Petroleum Products

    D2162 Practice for Basic Calibration of Master Viscometers and Viscosity Oil Standards

    D4175 Terminology Relating to Petroleum Products, Liquid Fuels, and Lubricants

    D5133 Test Method for Low Temperature, Low Shear Rate, Viscosity/Temperature Dependence of Lubricating Oils Using a Temperature-Scanning Technique

    D5293 Test Method for Apparent Viscosity of Engine Oils and Base Stocks Between 10C and 35C Using Cold-Cranking Simulator

    D6708 Practice for Statistical Assessment and Improvement of Expected Agreement Between Two Test Methods that Purport to Measure the Same Property of a Material

    D7962 Practice for Determination of Minimum Immersion Depth and Assessment of Temperature Sensor Measurement Drift

    D8210 Test Method for Automatic Determination of Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants Using a Rotational Viscometer

    E1 Specification for ASTM Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers

    E644 Test Methods for Testing Industrial Resistance Thermometers

    E2877 Guide for Digital Contact Thermometers

    ISO Standard

    ISO 17025


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 75.100 (Lubricants, industrial oils and related products)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15121500(Lubricating preparations); 41103312(Viscosimeters)


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D2983-16

    Citation Format

    ASTM D2983-16, Standard Test Method for Low-Temperature Viscosity of Automatic Transmission Fluids, Hydraulic Fluids, and Lubricants using a Rotational Viscometer, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016, www.astm.org

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