ASTM D2777-98

    Standard Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Methods of Committee D-19 on Water


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    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice establishes uniform standards for expressing the precision and bias of applicable test methods for Committee D-19 on Water.

    1.2 Except as specified in 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, and 1.6, this practice requires that the task group proposing a new test method must carry out a collaborative study from which statements for precision (multiple laboratory operational and single-operator standard deviation estimates) and observed bias can be developed. This practice provides general guidance to task groups in planning and conducting such determinations of precision and bias.

    1.3 Where, due to the nature of the test or instability of the sample, a full-scale collaborative test is not technically feasible, a statement of single-operator precision (Section 10) will meet the requirements of this practice. Whenever possible, this statement should be developed from data generated by multiple operators, each doing replicate analyses on independent samples which generally fall within specified concentration ranges. This practice is not applicable to methodology involving continuous sampling and measurement of specific constituents and properties.

    1.4 Many of the test methods adopted prior to 1980 do not have adequate precision and bias statements, and there is insufficient information to satisfactorily improve the statements. These test methods are being used, and it is generally agreed that they should be continued as standards until 1985, while a proper collaborative study is conducted. In the interim, a warning must be placed in the scope and precision sections to alert the user that there has not been adequate collaborative testing to validate the test method.

    1.5 Existing test methods that do have adequate precision and bias statements based on a minimum of three laboratories for a total of six operators do not require further collaborative testing, and such deficiencies must be listed in the precision and bias statements.

    1.6 With the recommendation of the Results Advisor and the concurrence of the Technical Operations Section of the Executive Subcommittee, a statement giving a compelling reason why all or specific points of this practice cannot be fully complied with will meet both ASTM requirements (1) and the related requirements of this practice.

    1.7 In principle, all test methods are covered by this practice.

    1.8 In Section 11, this practice shows exemplary precision and bias statement formats for: ( ) test methods yielding a numerical measure, ( ) test methods yielding a nonnumerical report of success or failure based on criteria specified in the procedure, and ( ) test methods specifying that procedures in another ASTM method are to be used with only insignificant modifications.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D1129 Terminology Relating to Water

    D1141 Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Ocean Water

    D1193 Specification for Reagent Water

    D4375 Practice for Basic Statistics in Committee D19 on Water

    D5790 Test Method for Measurement of Purgeable Organic Compounds in Water by Capillary Column Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    D5847 Practice for Writing Quality Control Specifications for Standard Test Methods for Water Analysis

    D5905 Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Wastewater

    D6091 Practice for 99a??%/95a??% Interlaboratory Detection Estimate (IDE) for Analytical Methods with Negligible Calibration Error

    D6512 Practice for Interlaboratory Quantitation Estimate

    E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods

    E178 Practice for Dealing With Outlying Observations

    E456 Terminology Relating to Quality and Statistics

    E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method

    E1169 Practice for Conducting Ruggedness Tests


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.060.50 (Examination of water for chemical substances)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard
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    DOI: 10.1520/D2777-98

    Citation Format

    ASTM D2777-98, Standard Practice for Determination of Precision and Bias of Applicable Methods of Committee D-19 on Water, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 1998, www.astm.org

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