ASTM D276-00a(2008)

    Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles


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    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

    Acetate (secondary)Nylon
    Acrylic Nytril
    Anidex Olefin
    Aramid Polycarbonate
    AsbestosPolyester
    Cotton Ramie
    Cuprammonium rayonRayon (viscose)
    Flax Saran
    FluorocarbonSilk
    Glass Spandex
    Hemp Triacetate
    Jute Vinal
    LycocellVinyon
    ModacrylicWool
    Novoloid

    1.2 Man-made fibers are listed in 1.1 under the generic names approved by the Federal Trade Commission and listed in Terminology D 123, Annex A1 (except for fluorocarbon and polycarbonate). Many of the generic classes of man-made fibers are produced by several manufacturers and sold under various trademark names as follows (Note 1):

    Acetate Acele®, Aviscon®, Celanese®, Chromspun®, Estron®
    Acrylic Acrilan®, Courtelle®, Creslan®, Dralon®, Orlon®, Zefran®
    Anidex Anim/8®
    Aramid Arenka®, Conex®, Kevlar®, Nomex®, Twaron®
    CuprammoniumBemberg®
    FluorocarbonTeflon®
    Glass Fiberglas®, Garan®, Modiglass®, PPG®, Ultrastrand®
    Lyocell Tencel®
    ModacrylicDynel®, Kanecaron®, Monsanto SEF®, Verel®
    NovoloidKynol®
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) 6Caprolan®,Enka®, Perlon®, Zefran®, Enkalon®
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) 6, 6Antron®, Blue C®, Cantrece®, Celanese Phillips®, Enka®Nylon
    Polyamide
    (Nylon) (other)Rilsan®(nylon 11), Qiana®, StanylEnka®,(Nylon 4,6)
    Nytril Darvan®
    Olefin Durel®, Herculon®, Marvess®, Polycrest®
    PolyesterAvlin®, Beaunit®, Blue C®, Dacron®, Encron®, Fortrel®, Kodel®, Quintess®, Spectran®, Trevira®, Vyoron®, Zephran®, Diolen®, Vectran®
    Rayon Avril®, Avisco®, Dynacor®, Enka®, Fiber 700®, Fibro®, Nupron®, Rayflex®, Suprenka®, Tyrex®, Tyron®, Cordenka®
    Saran Enjay®, Saran®
    Spandex Glospun®, Lycra®, Numa®, Unel®
    TriacetateArnel®
    Vinyon Avisco®, Clevyl®, Rhovyl®, Thermovyl®, Volpex®

    Note 1—The list of trademarks in 1.2 does not include all brands produced in the United States or abroad and imported for sale in the United States. The list does not include examples of fibers from two (or more) generic classes of polymers spun into a single filament. Additional information on fiber types and trademarks is given in References (1, 2, and 3).

    1.3 Most manufacturers offer a variety of fiber types of a specific generic class. Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modifications (for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs) may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of fibers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specific purposes. These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the fiber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.

    1.4 Microscopical examination is indispensable for positive identification of the several types of cellulosic and animal fibers, because the infrared spectra and solubilities will not distinguish between species. Procedures for microscopic identification are published in AATCC Method 20 and in References (4-12).

    1.5 Analyses by infrared spectroscopy and solubility relationships are the preferred methods for identifying man-made fibers. The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identification of most man-made fibers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identifications.

    1.6 This includes the following sections:

    Section
    Referenced Documents2
    Birefringence
    by difference of refractive indices
    34, 35
    Terminology3
    Density24-27
    Infrared Spectroscopy, Fiber Identification by17-23
    Melting Point28-33
    Microscopical Examination, Fiber Identification by 9,10
    Reference Standards7
    Sampling, Selection, Preparation and Number of Specimens6
    Scope1
    Solubility Relationships, Fiber Identification Using 11-16
    Summary of Test Methods4
    Significant and Use5

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Note 3.

    9.1 As previously mentioned this test method is useful for identification of various cellulosic and animal fibers and to distinguish man-made fibers form the cellulosic and animal fibers. Examine and observe the fiber characteristics as directed in the AATCC test method 20.

    11.1 This test method covers the identification of fibers by determining their solubility or insolubility in various reagents and comparing these data to the known solubilities of the several generic classes of fibers. Other techniques (such as, microscopical examination or comparison of physical properties) are used to confirm the identification or to distinguish between those fiber classes (anidex, aramid, asbestos, fluorocarbon, glass, and novoloid) which are not dissolved by any of the reagents used in this scheme.

    17.1 This test method covers identification of fibers by interpretation of an absorption spectrum from infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the homogenous specimen obtained by one of three techniques: potassium bromide (KBr) disk, film, or internal reflection spectroscopy.

    Note 5—The internal reflection spectroscopy technique is more difficult to use satisfactorily than the KBr disk or film techniques and it is not recommended for use except by an operator experienced in the technique.

    24.1 Fiber density is measured by density-gradient column method. Determine density by the density-gradient column, pycnometer, and a technique based on Archimedes' principle as directed in the AATCC Test Method 20.

    28.1 This test method allows determining the temperature at which the material begins to lose its shape or form and becomes molten or liquefies. Allowing material to reach its melting point results in permanent fiber change.

    34.1 Refractive indices and birefringence are measured by Difference of Refractive Indices test method. Determine the refractive indices for plane-polarized light parallel to and perpendicular to the fiber length within 0.001, in accordance with AATCC Test Method 20.

    34.2 Calculate the birefringence using Eq:


    where:
    Δn= birefringence,
    ε= refractive index parallel to fiber axis, and
    ω= refractive index perpendicular to fiber axis.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D629 Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    E175 Terminology of Microscopy

    AATCC Method

    Test Method 20A Fiber Analysis: Quantitative


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.060.01 (Textile fibres in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11151500(Fibers)


    Referencing This Standard
    Link Here
    Link to Active (This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard.)

    DOI: 10.1520/D0276-00AR08

    Citation Format

    ASTM D276-00a(2008), Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org

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