ASTM D276-00a

    Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles

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    1. Scope

    1.1 These test methods cover the identification of the following textile fibers used commercially in the United States:

    Acetate (secondary)Nylon
    Acrylic Nytril
    Anidex Olefin
    Aramid Polycarbonate
    Cotton Ramie
    Cuprammonium rayonRayon (viscose)
    Flax Saran
    Glass Spandex
    Hemp Triacetate
    Jute Vinal

    1.2 Man-made fibers are listed in 1.1 under the generic names approved by the Federal Trade Commission and listed in Terminology D123, Annex A1 (except for fluorocarbon and polycarbonate). Many of the generic classes of man-made fibers are produced by several manufacturers and sold under various trademark names as follows (Note 1):

    Acetate Acele, Aviscon, Celanese, Chromspun, Estron
    Acrylic Acrilan, Courtelle, Creslan, Dralon, Orlon, Zefran
    Anidex Anim/8
    Aramid Arenka, Conex, Kevlar, Nomex, Twaron
    Glass Fiberglas, Garan, Modiglass, PPG, Ultrastrand
    Lyocell Tencel
    ModacrylicDynel, Kanecaron, Monsanto SEF, Verel
    (Nylon) 6Caprolan,Enka, Perlon, Zefran, Enkalon
    (Nylon) 6, 6Antron, Blue C, Cantrece, Celanese Phillips, Enka Nylon
    (Nylon) (other)Rilsan(nylon 11), Qiana, StanylEnka,(Nylon 4,6)
    Nytril Darvan
    Olefin Durel, Herculon, Marvess, Polycrest
    PolyesterAvlin, Beaunit, Blue C, Dacron, Encron, Fortrel, Kodel, Quintess, Spectran, Trevira, Vyoron, Zephran, Diolen, Vectran
    Rayon Avril, Avisco, Dynacor, Enka, Fiber 700, Fibro, Nupron, Rayflex, Suprenka, Tyrex, Tyron, Cordenka
    Saran Enjay, Saran
    Spandex Glospun, Lycra, Numa, Unel
    Vinyon Avisco, Clevyl, Rhovyl, Thermovyl, Volpex

    Note 1--The list of trademarks in does not include all brands produced in the United States or abroad and imported for sale in the United States. The list does not include examples of fibers from two (or more) generic classes of polymers spun into a single filament. Additional information on fiber types and trademarks is given in References (1,2, and 3).

    1.3 Most manufacturers offer a variety of fiber types of a specific generic class. Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modifications (for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs) may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of fibers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specific purposes. These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the fiber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.

    1.4 Microscopical examination is indispensable for positive identification of the several types of cellulosic and animal fibers, because the infrared spectra and solubilities will not distinguish between species. Procedures for microscopic identification are published in AATCC Method 20 and in References (4-12).

    1.5 Analyses by infrared spectroscopy and solubility relationships are the preferred methods for identifying man-made fibers. The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identification of most man-made fibers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identifications.

    1.6 This includes the following sections:

    Referenced Documents2
    Birefringence by difference of refractive indices34, 35
    Density24- 27
    Infrared Spectroscopy, Fiber Identification by17-23
    Melting Point28-33
    Microscopical Examination, Fiber Identification by9, 10
    Reference Standards7
    Sampling, Selection, Preparation and Number of Specimens6
    Solubility Relationships, Fiber Identification Using 11-16
    Summary of Test Methods4
    Significant and Use

    1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. See Note 3.

    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles

    D629 Test Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Textiles

    D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    D941 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Lipkin Bicapillary Pycnometer

    D1217 Test Method for Density and Relative Density (Specific Gravity) of Liquids by Bingham Pycnometer

    D1776 Practice for Conditioning and Testing Textiles

    E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy

    E175 Terminology of Microscopy

    AATCC Method

    Test Method 20A Fiber Analysis: Quantitative

    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 59.060.01 (Textile fibres in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 11151500(Fibers)

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    DOI: 10.1520/D0276-00A

    Citation Format

    ASTM D276-00a, Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000,

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