Search ASTM
A01 STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL AND RELATED ALLOYS A04 IRON CASTINGS A05 METALLIC-COATED IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS B01 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS B05 COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS B07 LIGHT METALS AND ALLOYS C01 CEMENT C04 VITRIFIED CLAY PIPE C07 LIME AND LIMESTONE C09 CONCRETE AND CONCRETE AGGREGATES C11 GYPSUM AND RELATED BUILDING MATERIALS AND SYSTEMS C12 MORTARS AND GROUTS FOR UNIT MASONRY C13 CONCRETE PIPE C14 GLASS AND GLASS PRODUCTS C15 MANUFACTURED MASONRY UNITS C16 THERMAL INSULATION C17 FIBER-REINFORCED CEMENT PRODUCTS C18 DIMENSION STONE C21 CERAMIC WHITEWARES AND RELATED PRODUCTS C24 BUILDING SEALS AND SEALANTS C27 PRECAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS D01 PAINT AND RELATED COATINGS, MATERIALS, AND APPLICATIONS D04 ROAD AND PAVING MATERIALS D07 WOOD D08 ROOFING AND WATERPROOFING D09 ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INSULATING MATERIALS D11 RUBBER D14 ADHESIVES D18 SOIL AND ROCK D20 PLASTICS D35 GEOSYNTHETICS E05 FIRE STANDARDS E06 PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS E33 BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACOUSTICS E36 ACCREDITATION & CERTIFICATION E57 3D IMAGING SYSTEMS E60 SUSTAINABILITY F01 ELECTRONICS F06 RESILIENT FLOOR COVERINGS F13 PEDESTRIAN/WALKWAY SAFETY AND FOOTWEAR F16 FASTENERS F17 PLASTIC PIPING SYSTEMS F33 DETENTION AND CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES F36 TECHNOLOGY AND UNDERGROUND UTILITIES G03 WEATHERING AND DURABILITY A01 STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL AND RELATED ALLOYS A04 IRON CASTINGS A05 METALLIC-COATED IRON AND STEEL PRODUCTS A06 MAGNETIC PROPERTIES B01 ELECTRICAL CONDUCTORS B02 NONFERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS B05 COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS B07 LIGHT METALS AND ALLOYS B08 METALLIC AND INORGANIC COATINGS B09 METAL POWDERS AND METAL POWDER PRODUCTS B10 REACTIVE AND REFRACTORY METALS AND ALLOYS C03 CHEMICAL-RESISTANT NONMETALLIC MATERIALS C08 REFRACTORIES C28 ADVANCED CERAMICS D01 PAINT AND RELATED COATINGS, MATERIALS, AND APPLICATIONS D20 PLASTICS D30 COMPOSITE MATERIALS E01 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY FOR METALS, ORES, AND RELATED MATERIALS E04 METALLOGRAPHY E07 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING E08 FATIGUE AND FRACTURE E12 COLOR AND APPEARANCE E13 MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY AND SEPARATION SCIENCE E28 MECHANICAL TESTING E29 PARTICLE AND SPRAY CHARACTERIZATION E37 THERMAL MEASUREMENTS E42 SURFACE ANALYSIS F01 ELECTRONICS F34 ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS F40 DECLARABLE SUBSTANCES IN MATERIALS F42 ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES G01 CORROSION OF METALS G03 WEATHERING AND DURABILITY A01 STEEL, STAINLESS STEEL AND RELATED ALLOYS C01 CEMENT C09 CONCRETE AND CONCRETE AGGREGATES D02 PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, LIQUID FUELS, AND LUBRICANTS D03 GASEOUS FUELS D04 ROAD AND PAVING MATERIALS D15 ENGINE COOLANTS AND RELATED FLUIDS D18 SOIL AND ROCK D24 CARBON BLACK D35 GEOSYNTHETICS E12 COLOR AND APPEARANCE E17 VEHICLE - PAVEMENT SYSTEMS E21 SPACE SIMULATION AND APPLICATIONS OF SPACE TECHNOLOGY E36 ACCREDITATION & CERTIFICATION E57 3D IMAGING SYSTEMS F03 GASKETS F07 AEROSPACE AND AIRCRAFT F09 TIRES F16 FASTENERS F25 SHIPS AND MARINE TECHNOLOGY F37 LIGHT SPORT AIRCRAFT F38 UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS F39 AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS F41 UNMANNED MARITIME VEHICLE SYSTEMS (UMVS) F44 GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT F45 DRIVERLESS AUTOMATIC GUIDED INDUSTRIAL VEHICLES
Bookmark and Share

InFocus

InFocus

Metals and Stainless Steel

Works Give Insight on Material History and Use

When was zirconium discovered?

When was brass first used?

What is Hadfield steel?

The answers to these questions and others can be found in the Dictionary of Metals. From A286 to zone melting, the recently published dictionary includes thousands of definitions and descriptions of metals, their alloys, the scientists who discovered and developed them, and more.

The entries begin with A286, a superalloy of iron, nickel and chromium with molybdenum and titanium that has good strength and oxidation resistance. The A286 entry also includes its Unified Numbering System identification, UNS S66286, and the ASTM standard specification that describes it — A453/A453M, Specification for High-Temperature Bolting, with Expansion Coefficients Comparable to Austenitic Stainless Steels.

Ending the dictionary’s alphabet is the entry on zone melting, which includes an explanation of how this highly localized melting technique usually affects a metal rod and occurs by induction heating of a small volume of an otherwise solid metal piece.

The Dictionary of Metals, published by ASM International in December 2012, is available for purchase on the ASTM website.

The dictionary was edited by Harold M. Cobb, a retired ASTM International staff manager and a current ASTM member. Cobb has decades of related experience and research to his credit and compiles innumerable definitions and word origins related to metals in this new book. Cobb says, “I’ve been interested in language and etymology my whole life.” He adds that he noted a lack of such a volume in the United States and felt this work would fill that space.

In addition to technical definitions, the dictionary includes related information, additional resources and technical notes, often with references, for the various alloy groups. The reference concludes with several appendixes:

  • Metals history timeline, starting from 6000 B.C., the Chalcolithic Period, when copper came into common use, to 2009, when the first free-cutting steel with vanadium was added to a list of free-cutting carbon steels;
  • Bibliography, which lists the sources for the definitions and other consulted references; and
  • Properties and conversion tables of the elements, physical properties, density, thermal expansion and conductivity, electrical conductivity and resistivity; temperature conversions and more.

Cobb also wrote The History of Stainless Steel, which was published by ASM International in 2010 (also available for purchase on the ASTM website) and translated and published in China last year. As Cobb notes in his preface to that volume, “It [stainless steel] is all around us, and readers will be surprised to learn some of the stories of this remarkable material that one prominent metallurgist called ‘the miracle metal.’”

Cobb covers his subject in depth: 16 chapters, a timeline for stainless steel with 460 notable milestones, a bibliography and an extensive index.

As noted in the introduction, seven men in four countries inadvertently discovered alloys we now call stainless steel. From early discoveries to the modern Unified Numbering System, which Cobb helped develop, the author traces notable figures in the field as well as the events that produced today’s familiar material.

Along the way, Cobb tells the story of the New York City landmark skyscraper, the Chrysler building, with its Art Deco stainless steel clad dome, and of motorcars and train cars. It’s an interesting and illustrated look at what metallurgist Carl Zapffe called “the crowning achievement of metallurgy.”

This article appears in the issue of Standardization News.