Coal Standards and Gas Standards

    ASTM's coal and gas standards are instrumental in the testing and chemical analysis of coal, coke, natural gas and other gaseous fuels, as well as the combustion residues of coal and coke. The materials specifically covered by these standards can be in the form of lump coke, pulverized coal, bituminous coal, coke and coal ash, reformed gas, and polishing and etching coal. These standards also include the thermophysical property tables for methane, ethane, propane, normal butane, and isobutane. These standards allow laboratories and other chemical facilities to examine and assess these fuels to ensure safe handling and use.

    List of coal standards and gas standards developed by ASTM:


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    Analysis of Chemical Composition of Gaseous Fuels

    DesignationTitle
    D1945 - 03(2010) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas by Gas Chromatography
    D1946 - 90(2011) Standard Practice for Analysis of Reformed Gas by Gas Chromatography
    D1988 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Mercaptans in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes
    D4810 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes
    D4888 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Water Vapor in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes
    D4984 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Carbon Dioxide in Natural Gas Using Length-of-Stain Detector Tubes
    D7833 - 14 Standard Test Method for Determination of Hydrocarbons and Non-Hydrocarbon Gases in Gaseous Mixtures by Gas Chromatography

    Classification of Coals

    DesignationTitle
    D388 - 12 Standard Classification of Coals by Rank
    D4596 - 09 Standard Practice for Collection of Channel Samples of Coal in a Mine
    D5192 - 09 Standard Practice for Collection of Coal Samples from Core

    Collection and Measurement of Gaseous Samples

    DesignationTitle
    D1071 - 83(2008) Standard Test Methods for Volumetric Measurement of Gaseous Fuel Samples
    D5287 - 08 Standard Practice for Automatic Sampling of Gaseous Fuels
    D5503 - 94(2008) Standard Practice for Natural Gas Sample-Handling and Conditioning Systems for Pipeline Instrumentation

    Determination of Heating Value and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels

    DesignationTitle
    D1070 - 03(2010) Standard Test Methods for Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels
    D1826 - 94(2010) Standard Test Method for Calorific (Heating) Value of Gases in Natural Gas Range by Continuous Recording Calorimeter
    D3588 - 98(2011) Standard Practice for Calculating Heat Value, Compressibility Factor, and Relative Density of Gaseous Fuels
    D4891 - 13 Standard Test Method for Heating Value of Gases in Natural Gas and Flare Gases Range by Stoichiometric Combustion

    Determination of Special Constituents of Gaseous Fuels

    DesignationTitle
    D1072 - 06(2012) Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Fuel Gases by Combustion and Barium Chloride Titration
    D1142 - 95(2012) Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels by Measurement of Dew-Point Temperature
    D4084 - 07(2012) Standard Test Method for Analysis of Hydrogen Sulfide in Gaseous Fuels (Lead Acetate Reaction Rate Method)
    D4468 - 85(2011) Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Gaseous Fuels by Hydrogenolysis and Rateometric Colorimetry
    D5454 - 11e1 Standard Test Method for Water Vapor Content of Gaseous Fuels Using Electronic Moisture Analyzers
    D5504 - 12 Standard Test Method for Determination of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Chemiluminescence
    D5954 - 98(2014)e1 Standard Test Method for Mercury Sampling and Measurement in Natural Gas by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
    D6228 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Flame Photometric Detection
    D6273 - 14 Standard Test Methods for Natural Gas Odor Intensity
    D6350 - 14 Standard Test Method for Mercury Sampling and Analysis in Natural Gas by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy
    D6968 - 03(2009) Standard Test Method for Simultaneous Measurement of Sulfur Compounds and Minor Hydrocarbons in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography and Atomic Emission Detection
    D7551 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases and Natural Gas by Ultraviolet Fluorescence

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    DesignationTitle
    D7550 - 09 Standard Test Method for Determination of Ammonium, Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals in Hydrogen and Other Cell Feed Gases by Ion Chromatography
    D7606 - 11 Standard Practice for Sampling of High Pressure Hydrogen and Related Fuel Cell Feed Gases
    D7634 - 10 Standard Test Method for Visualizing Particulate Sizes and Morphology of Particles Contained in Hydrogen Fuel by Microscopy
    D7649 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Carbon Dioxide, Argon, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Water in Hydrogen Fuel by Jet Pulse Injection and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer Analysis
    D7650 - 13 Standard Test Method for Sampling of Particulate Matter in High Pressure Hydrogen used as a Gaseous Fuel with an In-Stream Filter
    D7651 - 10 Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Measurement of Particulate Concentration of Hydrogen Fuel
    D7652 - 11 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbonyl Sulfide, Methyl Mercaptan, Carbon Disulfide and Total Sulfur in Hydrogen Fuel by Gas Chromatography and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detection
    D7653 - 10 Standard Test Method for Determination of Trace Gaseous Contaminants in Hydrogen Fuel by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
    D7675 - 11 Standard Test Method for Test Method for the Determination of Total Hydrocarbons in Hydrogen by FID Based Total Hydrocarbon (THC) Analyzer
    D7941 / D7941M - 14 Standard Test Method for Hydrogen Purity Analysis Using a Continuous Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Analyzer

    Major Elements in Ash and Trace Elements of Coal

    DesignationTitle
    D3682 - 13 Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes
    D3683 - 11 Standard Test Method for Trace Elements in Coal and Coke Ash by Atomic Absorption
    D3684 - 01(2006) Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Atomic Absorption Method
    D3761 - 10 Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method
    D4326 - 13 Standard Test Method for Major and Minor Elements in Coal and Coke Ash By X-Ray Fluorescence
    D4606 - 03(2007) Standard Test Method for Determination of Arsenic and Selenium in Coal by the Hydride Generation/Atomic Absorption Method
    D5016 - 08e1 Standard Test Method for Total Sulfur in Coal and Coke Combustion Residues Using a High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion Method with Infrared Absorption
    D5987 - 96(2007) Standard Test Method for Total Fluorine in Coal and Coke by Pyrohydrolytic Extraction and Ion Selective Electrode or Ion Chromatograph Methods
    D6316 - 09be1 Standard Test Method for Determination of Total, Combustible and Carbonate Carbon in Solid Residues from Coal and Coke
    D6349 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determination of Major and Minor Elements in Coal, Coke, and Solid Residues from Combustion of Coal and Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometry
    D6357 - 11 Test Methods for Determination of Trace Elements in Coal, Coke, & Combustion Residues from Coal Utilization Processes by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass, & Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry
    D6414 - 14 Standard Test Methods for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Acid Extraction or Wet Oxidation/Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption
    D6721 - 01(2006) Standard Test Method for Determination of Chlorine in Coal by Oxidative Hydrolysis Microcoulometry
    D6722 - 11 Standard Test Method for Total Mercury in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues by Direct Combustion Analysis
    D7348 - 13 Standard Test Methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI) of Solid Combustion Residues

    Metallurgical Properties of Coal and Coke

    DesignationTitle
    D167 - 12a Standard Test Method for Apparent and True Specific Gravity and Porosity of Lump Coke
    D293 - 93(2010) Standard Test Method for the Sieve Analysis of Coke
    D720 - 91(2010) Standard Test Method for Free-Swelling Index of Coal
    D2014 - 97(2010) Standard Test Method for Expansion or Contraction of Coal by the Sole-Heated Oven
    D2639 / D2639M - 13 Standard Test Method for Plastic Properties of Coal by the Constant-Torque Gieseler Plastometer
    D3038 - 93(2010) Standard Test Method for Drop Shatter Test for Coke
    D3402 / D3402M - 93(2008) Standard Test Method for Tumbler Test for Coke
    D5263 - 93(2008)e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Degree of Oxidation in Bituminous Coal by Alkali Extraction
    D5341 - 99(2010)e1 Standard Test Method for Measuring Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength After Reaction (CSR)
    D5515 - 97(2010)e1 Standard Test Method for Determination of the Swelling Properties of Bituminous Coal Using a Dilatometer

    Methods of Analysis

    DesignationTitle
    D1412 - 07 Standard Test Method for Equilibrium Moisture of Coal at 96 to 97 Percent Relative Humidity and 30°C
    D1857 / D1857M - 04(2010) Standard Test Method for Fusibility of Coal and Coke Ash
    D2492 - 02(2012) Standard Test Method for Forms of Sulfur in Coal
    D2961 - 11 Standard Test Method for Single-Stage Total Moisture Less than 15% in Coal Reduced to 2.36-mm (No. 8 Sieve) Topsize
    D3172 - 13 Standard Practice for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke
    D3173 - 11 Standard Test Method for Moisture in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke
    D3174 - 12 Standard Test Method for Ash in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke from Coal
    D3175 - 11 Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke
    D3176 - 09 Standard Practice for Ultimate Analysis of Coal and Coke
    D3180 - 12 Standard Practice for Calculating Coal and Coke Analyses from As-Determined to Different Bases
    D3302 / D3302M - 12 Standard Test Method for Total Moisture in Coal
    D4208 - 13 Standard Test Method for Total Chlorine in Coal by the Oxygen Bomb Combustion/Ion Selective Electrode Method
    D4239 - 14 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in the Analysis Sample of Coal and Coke Using High-Temperature Tube Furnace Combustion
    D5373 - 14 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen in Analysis Samples of Coal and Carbon in Analysis Samples of Coal and Coke
    D5865 - 13 Standard Test Method for Gross Calorific Value of Coal and Coke
    D7569 - 10 Standard Practice for Determination of Gas Content of Coal-Direct Desorption Method
    D7582 - 12 Standard Test Methods for Proximate Analysis of Coal and Coke by Macro Thermogravimetric Analysis

    On-Line/At-Line Analysis of Gaseous Fuels

    DesignationTitle
    D7164 - 10 Standard Practice for On-line/At-line Heating Value Determination of Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography
    D7165 - 10 Standard Practice for Gas Chromatograph Based On-line/At-line Analysis for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels
    D7166 - 10 Standard Practice for Total Sulfur Analyzer Based On-line/At-line for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels
    D7314 - 10 Standard Practice for Determination of the Heating Value of Gaseous Fuels using Calorimetry and On-line/At-line Sampling
    D7493 - 14 Standard Test Method for Online Measurement of Sulfur Compounds in Natural Gas and Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatograph and Electrochemical Detection
    D7607 / D7607M - 11e1 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Oxygen in Gaseous Fuels (Electrochemical Sensor Method)
    D7940 - 14 Standard Practice for Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by Fiber-Coupled Raman Spectroscopy

    Petrographic Analysis of Coal and Coke

    DesignationTitle
    D2797 / D2797M - 11a Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light
    D2798 - 11a Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Vitrinite Reflectance of Coal
    D2799 - 13 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Maceral Composition of Coal
    D3997 / D3997M - 97(2009) Standard Practice for Preparing Coke Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light
    D5061 - 07 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Textural Components of Metallurgical Coke
    D5671 - 95(2011) Standard Practice for Polishing and Etching Coal Samples for Microscopical Analysis by Reflected Light
    D7708 - 14 Standard Test Method for Microscopical Determination of the Reflectance of Vitrinite Dispersed in Sedimentary Rocks

    Physical Characteristics of Coal

    DesignationTitle
    D197 - 87(2012) Standard Test Method for Sampling and Fineness Test of Pulverized Coal
    D291 - 07(2012) Standard Test Method for Cubic Foot Weight of Crushed Bituminous Coal
    D409 / D409M - 12 Standard Test Method for Grindability of Coal by the Hardgrove-Machine Method
    D440 - 07(2012) Standard Test Method of Drop Shatter Test for Coal
    D441 - 07(2012) Standard Test Method of Tumbler Test for Coal
    D4371 - 06(2012) Standard Test Method for Determining the Washability Characteristics of Coal
    D4749 - 87(2012) Standard Test Method for Performing the Sieve Analysis of Coal and Designating Coal Size
    D5114 - 90(2010) Standard Test Method for Laboratory Froth Flotation of Coal in a Mechanical Cell
    D6172 - 98(2010) Standard Test Method for Determining the Volume of Bulk Materials Using Contours or Cross Sections Created by Direct Operator Compilation Using Photogrammetric Procedures
    D6347 / D6347M - 05(2010) Standard Test Method for Determination of Bulk Density of Coal Using Nuclear Backscatter Depth Density Methods
    D6542 - 05(2010) Standard Practice for Tonnage Calculation of Coal in a Stockpile

    Sampling

    DesignationTitle
    D346 / D346M - 11 Standard Practice for Collection and Preparation of Coke Samples for Laboratory Analysis
    D2013 / D2013M - 12 Standard Practice for Preparing Coal Samples for Analysis
    D2234 / D2234M - 10 Standard Practice for Collection of a Gross Sample of Coal
    D6543 - 14a Standard Guide to the Evaluation of Measurements Made by Online Coal Analyzers
    D6609 - 08 Standard Guide for Part-Stream Sampling of Coal
    D6883 - 04(2012) Standard Practice for Manual Sampling of Stationary Coal from Railroad Cars, Barges, Trucks, or Stockpiles
    D7430 - 14 Standard Practice for Mechanical Sampling of Coal

    Statistics

    DesignationTitle
    D121 - 09a Standard Terminology of Coal and Coke
    D6796 - 02(2008) Standard Practice for Production of Coal, Coke and Coal Combustion Samples for Interlaboratory Studies
    D7448 - 09 Standard Practice for Establishing the Competence of Laboratories Using ASTM Procedures in the Sampling and Analysis of Coal and Coke

    Terminology Classification and Specifications

    DesignationTitle
    D4150 - 08 Standard Terminology Relating to Gaseous Fuels

    Thermophysical Properties

    DesignationTitle
    D3956 - 12 Standard Specification for Methane Thermophysical Property Tables
    D3984 - 13 Standard Specification for Ethane Thermophysical Property Tables
    D4362 - 13 Standard Specification for Propane Thermophysical Property Tables
    D4650 - 14 Standard Specification for Normal Butane Thermophysical Property Tables
    D4651 - 14 Standard Specification for Isobutane Thermophysical Property Tables
    D4784 - 93(2010) Standard for LNG Density Calculation Models
    D7265 - 12 Standard Specification for Hydrogen Thermophysical Property Tables

    Other standards developed by ASTM committees:


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