Business Copy Product Standards

    ASTM's business copy product standards are instrumental in the testing and evaluation of the various products and media used in printing business-related documents and papers. These products include film ribbons, toners, inks, print cartridges, and other components of both manual and electronic typewriters, printers, and copiers, as well as the carbon and printing paper, and correction media. These business copy product standards are responsible for assessing the image properties, resolution, color strength, lightfastness, adhesion, stain and smudge resistance, and other characteristics pertinent to the quality of printed results. These standards allow manufacturers of such products to fabricate and assess their merchandise to ensure their quality.

    List of business copy product standards developed by ASTM:


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    Carbonless and Thermal Imaging Products

    DesignationTitle
    F556 - 88(2011) Standard Test Method for Curl of Carbonless Copy Papers
    F598 - 00(2009) Standard Practice for Determining the Resistance of Carbonless Papers to Capsular Damage
    F605 - 88(2011) Standard Practice for Determining Compatibility of One-Time Carbon Paper with Carbonless Copy Papers When Interleaved into the Same Manifold Set
    F686 - 94(2011) Standard Practice for Evaluation of Image Quality Produced by Carbonless Copy Paper with an Electric or Electronic Typewriter
    F767 - 98(2013) Standard Test Method for Image Stability of Chemical Carbonless Paper to Light
    F1175 - 88(2011) Standard Practice for Using the Computer Impact Print-Out Unit as a Test Instrument for Manifold Comparison
    F1320 - 01(2011) Standard Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Paper Employing a Facsimile Thermal Printer as a Test Instrument
    F1405 - 08(2013) Standard Test Method for Determining the Dynamic Thermal Response of Direct Thermal Imaging Products—Atlantek Method
    F1444 - 00(2009) Standard Test Method for Determining Dynamic Thermal Response of Direct Thermal Paper-Label Printer Method
    F1445 - 00(2009) Standard Test Method for Determining Static Thermal Sensitivity of Direct Thermal Paper
    F1721 - 04(2009) Standard Practices for Determining Stability of Direct Thermal Imaging Products

    Electrostatic Imaging Products

    DesignationTitle
    F360 - 82(2011) Standard Practice for Image Evaluation of Electrostatic Business Copies
    F470 - 89(2009) Standard Practice for Caking Temperature of Dry Electrostatic Toner
    F505 - 87(2011) Standard Practice for Comparative Evaluation of Imaging Properties of Liquid Electrostatic Toners
    F577 - 03(2009) Standard Test Method for Particle Size Measurement of Dry Toners
    F596 - 09 Standard Practice for Comparative Evaluation of the Imaging Properties of Dry Electrostatic Toners
    F685 - 96(2011) Standard Practice for Determining Toner Usage, Efficiency, and Dusting Nonheat Fixing Copiers Using Single-Component Toner Systems
    F706 - 96(2011) Standard Practice for Determination of Fusion Temperature of Dry Electrostatic Heat-Fixing Toners
    F807 - 83(2009) Standard Practice for Determining Resolution Capability of Office Copiers
    F875 - 09 Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Large Area Density and Background on Office Copiers
    F974 - 06(2011)e1 Standard Practice for Determination of Color Response of Electrostatic Copying System, Black and White Output
    F995 - 09 Standard Practice for Estimating Toner Usage in Copiers Utilizing Dry Two-Component Developer
    F1042 - 87(2009) Standard Practice for Estimating Toner and Dispersant Usage in Copiers Utilizing Liquid Developers
    F1206 - 94(2011)e1 Standard Test Method for Evaluating Color Image Output from Color Printers and Copiers
    F1318 - 90(2009) Standard Test Method for Determination of Productivity Using Electrostatic Copy Machines with Various Configurations
    F1319 - 94(2011) Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Crockmeter Method)
    F1351 - 96(2013) Standard Practice for Determination of the Effect of Hard Creasing Paper on Images Produced by Business Imaging Systems
    F1423 - 09 Standard Practice for Determination of the Quality of Monochrome Images Produced from Non-Impact Personal Computer Printers
    F1424 - 92(2011) Standard Test Method for Estimating Toner Usage in Full-Color Copiers Utilizing Dry Mono- or Dual-Component Toners
    F1425 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Determining the Tribocharge of Two-Component Developer Materials
    F1434 - 97(2013) Standard Practice for Estimating the Performance of a Fuser Oil in an Electrostatic Copier or Printer
    F1478 - 06(2011) Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion Resistance of Images Produced from Copiers and Printers (Taber Method)
    F1486 - 96(2013) Standard Practice for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Office Products (GA-CAT Method)
    F1856 - 04(2009) Standard Practice for Determining Toner Usage for Printer Cartridges
    F2036 - 05(2011) Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Larger Area Density and Background on Electrophotographic Printers
    F2494 - 05(2011) Standard Test Method for Determining Energy Consumption of Copiers and Similar Office Imaging Equipment
    F2495 - 05(2011) Standard Test Method for Determining Energy Consumption of MFDs with Copying Capability and Similar Office Imaging Equipment
    F2632 - 07(2013)e1 Standard Practice for Determining the Toner Usage for Color Printer Cartridges

    Ink Jet Imaging Products

    DesignationTitle
    F1942 - 98(2010) Standard Practice for Creating Test Targets for Determining the Ink Yield of the Imaging Supplies Used in Ink Jet Printers
    F1944 - 98(2008) Standard Practice for Determining the Quality of the Text, Line- and Solid-Fill Output Produced by Ink Jet Printers
    F1945 - 05(2011) Standard Practice for Determining the Lightfastness of Ink Jet Prints Exposed to Indoor Fluorescent Lighting
    F1946 / F1946M - 10 Standard Practice for Determining the Lightfastness of Ink Jet Prints Exposed to Indoor Fluorescent Lighting and Window-Filtered Daylight
    F2035 - 00(2011) Standard Practice for Measuring the Dark Stability of Ink Jet Prints
    F2037 - 00(2011) Standard Practice for Predicting the Lifetime of Ink Jet Prints Stored in Dark Keeping Conditions in Typical Office Environments
    F2292 - 03(2008) Standard Practice for Determining the Waterfastness of Images Produced by Ink Jet Printers Utilizing Four Different Test Methods—Drip, Spray, Submersion and Rub
    F2293 - 03(2008) Standard Practice for Determining the Stain Resistance of Images Produced by Ink Jet Printers
    F2366 - 12 Standard Practice for Determining the Relative Lightfastness of Ink Jet Prints Exposed to Window Filtered Daylight Using a Xenon Arc Light Apparatus
    F2496 - 05(2011)e1 Standard Practice for Determining the Scratch Hardness and Scrape Adhesion of Prints and Coatings
    F2497 - 05(2011)e1 Standard Practice for Abrasion and Scuff Resistance of Inkjet Media by the Sutherland Rub Tester
    F2498 - 05(2011) Standard Practice for Determining the Drying Time of Inkjet Media and Inks Using a Smudge Method
    F2555 - 06(2011) Standard Practice for Determining Page Yield of Ink Jet Printer Cartridges—Continuous Printing Method
    F2734 - 08 Standard Practice for Testing the Shelf Life of Ink Jet Printer Cartridges
    F2760 - 09 Standard Practice for Testing Ink Jet Cartridge Latency (Start-Up)

    Inked Transfer Imaging Products

    DesignationTitle
    F92 - 93(2008) Standard Practice for Determination of Character Yield of Inked Fabric Typewriter and Printer Ribbons
    F129 - 97(2008) Standard Practice for Amount of Ink Deposit on Carbon Paper and Inked Ribbons, Other Than Fabric Type
    F153 - 95(2008) Standard Test Method for Determining the Yield of Wide Inked Computer Ribbons
    F362 / F362M - 91(2010)e1 Standard Test Method for Determining the Erasability of Inked Ribbons
    F396 - 00(2009) Standard Practice for Comparing One-Time Noncorrectable Typewriter Ribbons
    F415 - 87(2010) Standard Test Method for Curl in Carbon Paper
    F497 - 00(2009) Standard Practice for Use of the Electric and Electronic Typewriter as a Test Instrument
    F509 - 86(2009) Standard Practice for Testing One-Time Carbonizing Tissue for Pinholes
    F597 - 83(2008) Standard Practice for Evaluation of One-Time Carbon Paper in Carbon-Interleaved Business Forms by Use of an Electric Typewriter
    F627 - 99(2008) Standard Practice for Testing Flake of Single-Strike Film Typewriter Ribbons
    F766 / F766M - 82(2010)e1 Standard Test Method for Melting Point of Waxes
    F843 - 98(2008) Standard Test Method for Assessing the Color Strength and Dispersibility of Alkali Blue Pigment in Hot Melt Carbon Copy Paper Ink
    F854 - 83(2008) Standard Test Method for Cleanliness of Carbon Paper
    F935 - 00(2009) Standard Test Method for Comparing Cover-Up Correction Media
    F1033 - 00(2010) Standard Test Method for Comparing Lift-Off Correction Media
    F1050 / F1050M - 87(2010)e1 Standard Test Method for Determining Winding Torque and Tension of Typewriter Ribbons
    F1051 - 00(2009) Standard Test Method for Comparing Multistrike Film Ribbons
    F1151 - 88(2008) Standard Test Method for Determining Variations in Hardness of Film Ribbon Pancakes
    F1225 - 99(2008) Standard Test Method for Measuring the Ribbon Exit Force for Film and Fabric Cartridges
    F1232 - 98(2008) Standard Practice for Generating a Test Pattern for Single-Pass Film Ribbons
    F1454 - 99(2008) Standard Practice for Comparing Correctable Film Ribbons
    F1509 - 94(2009) Standard Test Methods for Determining Acceptability of Ribbon Welds in Fabric Cartridges
    F1520 - 94(2008) Standard Test Method for Determining the Drive Torque for Film and Fabric Ribbon Cartridges
    F1571 - 95(2008) Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Sutherland Method)
    F1782 - 97(2008) Standard Practice for Amount of Ink Deposit on Fabric Type Ribbons
    F1943 - 98(2008) Standard Test Method for Determining the Dynamic Thermal Response of Thermal Mass Transfer Ribbon Products—Atlantek Method

    Nomenclature and Definitions

    DesignationTitle
    F149 - 92b(2009) Standard Terminology Relating to Optical Character Recognition
    F221 - 98(2009) Standard Terminology Relating to Carbon Paper and Inked Ribbon Products and Images Made Therefrom
    F335 - 03(2009) Standard Terminology Relating to Electrostatic Copying
    F549 - 85(2011) Standard Terminology Relating to Carbonless Copy Products
    F909 - 94a(2011) Standard Terminology Relating to Printers
    F1125 - 87(2011) Standard Terminology of Image Quality in Impact Printing Systems
    F1294 - 97a(2009) Standard Terminology Relating to Automatic Identification Hard Copy Printing Systems
    F1457 - 94b(2011) Standard Terminology Relating to Laser Printers
    F1623 - 96(2013) Standard Terminology Relating to Thermal Imaging Products
    F1857 - 01(2011) Standard Terminology Relating to Ink Jet Printers and Images Made Therefrom

    Research

    DesignationTitle
    F1174 - 12 Standard Practice for Using a Personal Computer Printer as a Test Instrument
    F1442 - 92(2009) Standard Practice for Using a Copier or Printer as a Test Instrument for Evaluating Paper Performance
    F1443 - 93(2009) Standard Practice for Using 0.008-in. (0.203-mm) Aperture Reflectometers as Test Instruments for Measuring Visual Image Quality of Business Copy Images
    F1851 - 98(2009) Standard Practice for Bar Code Verification
    F2226 - 03(2009)e1 Standard Practice for Determining the Adhesion of Prints and Laminating Films
    F2294 - 03(2009) Standard Practice for Determining the Writeability of Print Media
    F2296 - 04(2012) Standard Practice for Determining the Adhesion of Lamination Films to Prints Utilizing Mechanical Stress: Four Different Test Methods—Score/Tape, Cross Hatch, X-Cut, and Crease-Folding
    F2406 - 04(2012) Standard Practice for Determining Yield of Solid Ink Sticks
    F2452 - 04(2012) Standard Practice for Determining the Adhesion of Print Media Utilizing Mechanical Stress: Two Different Test Methods—Score/Tape and Cross Hatch

    Other standards developed by ASTM committees:


    3D Imaging Standards

    Additive Manufacturing Standards

    Adhesive Standards

    Aerospace Material Standards

    Analytical Chemistry Standards

    Asset Management Standards

    Atmospheric Analysis Standards

    Biotechnology Standards

    Construction Standards

    Business Copy Product Standards

    Carbon Standards

    Catalyst Standards

    Cement Standards and Concrete Standards

    Coal Standards and Gas Standards

    Composite Standards

    Computerized System Standards

    Consumer Product Evaluation Standards

    Copper Standards

    Corrosion Standards and Wear Standards

    Durability of Nonmetallic Material Standards

    Electrical Insulating Material Standards

    Electrical Standards and Magnetic Conductor Standards

    Electronics Standards

    Environmental Standards

    Fastener Standards

    Fatigue Standards and Fracture Standards

    Fire Standards and Flammability Standards

    Forensic Science Standards

    Geotechnical Engineering Standards

    Glass Standards and Ceramic Standards

    Industrial Chemical Standards

    Industrial Hygiene Standards and Safety Standards

    Laboratory Testing Standards

    Leather Standards

    Masonry Standards

    Medical Device Standards and Implant Standards