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Significance and Use
Results obtained from this practice can be used to compare the relative durability of materials subjected to the specific test cycle used. No accelerated exposure test can be specified as a total simulation of natural or field exposures. Results obtained from this practice can be considered as representative of natural or field exposures only when the degree of comparative performance has been established for the specific materials being tested.
The relative durability of materials in natural or field exposure can be very different depending on the location of the exposure because of differences in UV radiation, time of wetness, temperature, pollutants, and other factors. Therefore, even if results from a specific accelerated test condition are found to be useful for comparing the relative durability of materials exposed in a particular exterior location, it cannot be assumed that they will be useful for determining relative durability for a different location.
The use of a single acceleration factor relating the rate of degradation in this accelerated exposure to the rate of degradation in a conventional exterior exposure is not recommended because the acceleration factor varies with the type and formulation of the material. Each material and formulation may respond differently to the increased level of irradiance and differences in temperature and humidity. Thus an acceleration factor determined for one material may not be applicable to other materials. Because of variability in test results under both accelerated and conventional exterior exposures results from a sufficient number of tests must be obtained to determine an acceleration factor for a material. Further, the acceleration factor is applicable to only one exterior exposure location because results from conventional exterior exposures can vary due to seasonal or annual differences in important climatic factors.
Variations in results may be expected when operating conditions vary within the limits of this practice. For example, there can be large differences in the amount of degradation in a single material between separate, although supposedly identical, exposures carried out for the same duration or number of exposure cycles. This practice is best used to compare the relative performance of materials tested at the same time in the same fresnel reflector device. Because of possible variability between the same type of exposure device and variability in irradiance, temperature and moisture levels at different times, comparing the amount of degradation in materials exposed for the same duration or radiant energy at separate times is not recommended.
This practice should not be used to establish a “pass/fail” approval of materials after a specific period of exposure unless performance comparisons are made relative to a control material exposed simultaneously, or the variability in the test is defined so that statistically significant pass/fail judgements can be made. It is strongly recommended that at least one control test specimen be exposed with each test. The control test specimen should meet the requirements of Terminology G113, and be chosen so that its failure mode is the same as that of the test specimen. It is preferable to use two control test specimens, one with relatively good durability and one with relatively poor durability.
The use of at least two replicates of each control test specimen and each material being evaluated is recommended. Consult Guide G169 for performing statistical analysis.
1.1 Fresnel-reflecting concentrators using the sun as source are utilized in the accelerated outdoor exposure testing of nonmetallic materials.
1.2 This practice covers a procedure for performing accelerated outdoor exposure testing of nonmetallic materials using a Fresnel-reflector accelerated outdoor weathering test machine. The apparatus (see Fig. 1 and Fig. 2) and guidelines are described herein to minimize the variables encountered during outdoor accelerated exposure testing.
1.3 This practice does not specify the exposure conditions best suited for the materials to be tested but is limited to the method of obtaining, measuring, and controlling the procedures and certain conditions of the exposure. Sample preparation, test conditions, and evaluation of results are covered in existing methods or specifications for specific materials.
1.4 The Fresnel-reflector accelerated outdoor exposure test machines described may be suitable for the determination of the relative durability of materials exposed to sunlight, heat, and moisture, provided the mechanisms of chemical or physical change, or both, which control the rates of acceleration factors for the materials do not differ significantly.
1.5 This practice establishes uniform sample mounting and in-test maintenance procedures. Also included in the practice are standard provisions for maintenance of the machine and Fresnel-reflector mirrors to ensure cleanliness and durability.
1.6 This practice shall apply to specimens whose size meets the dimensions of the target board as described in 8.2.
1.7 For test machines currently in use, this practice may not apply to specimens exceeding 13 mm (1/2 in.) in thickness because cooling may be questionable.
1.8 Values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D859 Test Method for Silica in Water
D1014 Practice for Conducting Exterior Exposure Tests of Paints and Coatings on Metal Substrates
D1435 Practice for Outdoor Weathering of Plastics
D1898 Practice for Sampling of Plastics
D4141 Practice for Conducting Black Box and Solar Concentrating Exposures of Coatings
D4517 Test Method for Low-Level Total Silica in High-Purity Water by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
E816 Test Method for Calibration of Pyrheliometers by Comparison to Reference Pyrheliometers
E824 Test Method for Transfer of Calibration From Reference to Field Radiometers
E903 Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials Using Integrating Spheres
G7 Practice for Atmospheric Environmental Exposure Testing of Nonmetallic Materials
G24 Practice for Conducting Exposures to Daylight Filtered Through Glass
G113 Terminology Relating to Natural and Artificial Weathering Tests of Nonmetallic Materials
G167 Test Method for Calibration of a Pyranometer Using a Pyrheliometer
G169 Guide for Application of Basic Statistical Methods to Weathering Tests
G173 Tables for Reference Solar Spectral Irradiances: Direct Normal and Hemispherical on 37 Tilted Surface
Other StandardsWMO Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation WMO No. 8, Fifth Edition Available from World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.