ASTM G74 - 13

    Standard Test Method for Ignition Sensitivity of Nonmetallic Materials and Components by Gaseous Fluid Impact

    Active Standard ASTM G74 | Developed by Subcommittee: G04.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 14.04


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    Significance and Use

    4.1 This test standard describes how to evaluate the relative sensitivity of materials and components to dynamic pressure impacts by various gaseous fluid media (can include gas mixtures).

    4.2 Changes or variations in test specimen configurations, thickness, preparation, and cleanliness can cause a significant change in their impact ignition sensitivity/reaction. For material tests, the test specimen configuration shall be specified on the test report.

    4.3 Changes or variation in the test system configuration from that specified herein may cause a significant change in the severity produced by a dynamic pressure surge of the gaseous media.

    4.4 A reaction is indicated by an abrupt increase in test specimen temperature, by obvious changes in odor, color, or material appearance, or a combination thereof, as observed during post-test examinations. Odor alone is not considered positive evidence that a reaction has occurred. When an increase in test specimen temperature is observed, a test specimen reaction must be confirmed by visual inspection. To aid with visual inspection, magnification less than 10× can be used.

    4.5 When testing components, the test article must be disassembled and the nonmetallic materials examined for evidence of ignition after completion of the specified pressure surge cycles.

    4.6 Ignition or precursors to ignition for any test sample shall be considered a failure and are indicated by burning, material loss, scorching, or melting of a test material detected through direct visual means. Ignition is often indicated by consumption of the non-metallic material under test, whether as an individual material or within a component. Partial ignition can also occur, as shown in Fig. 3a, b, and c, and shall also be considered an ignition (failure) for the purpose of this test standard.

    4.7 For material testing, the prescribed procedure is conducted on multiple samples until a statistically significant number of ignitions or no-ignitions, or both, are achieved at various test pressures. The data is then analyzed by a procedure that calculates the median failure pressure (i.e., the 50 % reaction pressure) or the functional form of the ignition probability versus pressure by logistic regression analysis. Materials tested in a similar configuration can be ranked against each other by either of these two criteria. The initial test gas temperature may be varied as required depending on the requirements of the test.

    4.8 For component testing, a specified number of pressure surge cycles are conducted at a defined test pressure, usually specified by a particular industry test standard. Usually, this pressure is 1.2 times the maximum allowable working pressure of the component. The initial test gas temperature may be varied depending on the requirements of the test; however, most commonly the initial test gas temperature is 60 ± 3 °C.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This test method describes a method to determine the relative sensitivity of nonmetallic materials (including plastics, elastomers, coatings, etc.) and components (including valves, regulators flexible hoses, etc.) to dynamic pressure impacts by gases such as oxygen, air, or blends of gases containing oxygen.

    1.2 This test method describes the test apparatus and test procedures employed in the evaluation of materials and components for use in gases under dynamic pressure operating conditions up to gauge pressures of 69 MPa and at elevated temperatures.

    1.3 This test method is primarily a test method for ranking of materials and qualifying components for use in gaseous oxygen. The material test method is not necessarily valid for determination of the sensitivity of the materials in an “as-used” configuration since the material sensitivity can be altered because of changes in material configuration, usage, and service conditions/interactions. However, the component testing method outlined herein can be valid for determination of the sensitivity of components under service conditions. The current provisions of this method were based on the testing of components having an inlet diameter (ID bore) less than or equal to 14 mm (see Note 1).

    1.4 A 5 mm Gaseous Fluid Impact Sensitivity (GFIS) test system and a 14 mm GFIS test system are described in this standard. The 5 mm GFIS system is utilized for materials and components that are directly attached to a high-pressure source and have minimal volume between the material/component and the pressure source. The 14 mm GFIS system is utilized for materials and components that are attached to a high pressure source through a manifold or other higher volume or larger sized connection. Other sizes than these may be utilized but no attempt has been made to characterize the thermal profiles of other volumes and geometries (see Note 1).

    Note 1The energy delivered by this test method is dependent on the gas volume being rapidly compressed at the inlet to the test specimen or test article. Therefore the geometry of the upstream volume (diameter and length) is crucial to the test and crucial to the application of the results to actual service conditions. It is therefore recommended that caution be exercised in applying the results of this testing to rapid pressurization of volumes larger than those standardized by this test method. This energy delivered by this standard is based on the rapid compression of the volume in either a 5 mm ID by 1000 mm long impact tube or a 14 mm ID by 750 mm long impact tube. These two upstream volumes are specified in this standard based on historic application within the industry.

    1.5 This test method can be utilized to provide batch-to-batch comparison screening of materials when the data is analyzed according to the methods described herein. Acceptability of any material by this test method may be based on its 50 % reaction pressure or its probability of ignition based on a logistic regression analysis of the data (described herein).

    1.6 Many ASTM, CGA, and ISO test standards require ignition testing of materials and components by gaseous fluid impact, also referred to as adiabatic compression testing. This test method provides the test system requirements consistent with the requirements of these other various standards. The pass/fail acceptance criteria may be provided within other standards and users should refer to those standards. Pass/fail guidance is provided in this standard such as that noted in section 4.6. This test method is designed to ensure that consistent gaseous fluid impact tests are conducted in different laboratories.

    1.7 The criteria used for the acceptance, retest, and rejection, or any combination thereof of materials and components for any given application shall be determined by the user and are not fixed by this method. However, it is recommended that at a minimum the 95 % confidence interval be established for all test results since ignition by this method is inherently probabilistic and should be treated by appropriate statistical methods.

    1.8 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.9 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautions see Section 7.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    D618 Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing

    D2463 Test Method for Drop Impact Resistance of Blow-Molded Thermoplastic Containers

    D3182 Practice for Rubber--Materials, Equipment, and Procedures for Mixing Standard Compounds and Preparing Standard Vulcanized Sheets

    D3183 Practice for Rubber--Preparation of Pieces for Test Purposes from Products

    D4894 Specification for Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Granular Molding and Ram Extrusion Materials

    G14 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Pipeline Coatings (Falling Weight Test)

    G63 Guide for Evaluating Nonmetallic Materials for Oxygen Service

    G88 Guide for Designing Systems for Oxygen Service

    G93 Practice for Cleaning Methods and Cleanliness Levels for Material and Equipment Used in Oxygen-Enriched Environments

    G94 Guide for Evaluating Metals for Oxygen Service

    G128 Guide for Control of Hazards and Risks in Oxygen Enriched Systems

    G175 Test Method for Evaluating the Ignition Sensitivity and Fault Tolerance of Oxygen Regulators Used for Medical and Emergency Applications

    Military Standards

    MIL-D-16791G Detergents, General Purpose (Liquid, Nonionic) (26 Jan 1990)

    MIL-O-27210E Amendment 1--Oxygen, Aviators Breathing, Liquid and Gas

    MIL-STD-1330D Standard Practice for precision Cleaning and Testing of Shipboard Oxygen, Helium, Helium-Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen Systems

    MIL-STD-1622 Cleaning Shipboard Compressed Air Systems

    CGA Standards

    CGAV-9 Compressed Gas Association Standard for Compressed Gas Cylinder Valves

    ISO Standards

    ISO10297 Transportable gas cylinders--Cylinder valves--Specification and type testing

    ISO10524-1 Pressure regulators for use with medical gases--Part 1: Pressure regulators and pressure regulators with flow-metering devices

    ISO10524-2 Pressure regulators for use with medical gases--Part 2: Manifold and line pressure regulators

    ISO10524-3 Pressure regulators for use with medical gases--Part 3: Pressure regulators integrated with cylinder valves

    ISO14113 Gas welding equipment--Rubber and plastics hose and hose assemblies for use with industrial gases up to 450 bar (45 MPa)

    ISO15001 Anesthetic and Respiratory Equipment--Compatibility with Oxygen

    ISO23529 Rubber--General procedures for preparing and conditioning test pieces for physical test methods reference

    ISO291 Plastics--Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing

    IEST Standards

    IEST-STD-CC1246D Product Cleanliness Levels and Contamination Control Program, Clean Rooms, August 2005


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 13.230 (Explosion protection)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 15111500(Gaseous fuels)


    DOI: 10.1520/G0074

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