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Significance and Use
The severity of abrasive wear in any system will depend upon the abrasive particle size, shape, and hardness, the magnitude of the stress imposed by the particle, and the frequency of contact of the abrasive particle. In this practice these conditions are standardized to develop a uniform condition of wear which has been referred to as scratching abrasion (1 and 2). The value of the practice lies in predicting the relative ranking of various materials of construction in an abrasive environment. Since the practice does not attempt to duplicate all of the process conditions (abrasive size, shape, pressure, impact, or corrosive elements), it should not be used to predict the exact resistance of a given material in a specific environment. Its value lies in predicting the ranking of materials in a similar relative order of merit as would occur in an abrasive environment. Volume loss data obtained from test materials whose lives are unknown in a specific abrasive environment may, however, be compared with test data obtained from a material whose life is known in the same environment. The comparison will provide a general indication of the worth of the unknown materials if abrasion is the predominant factor causing deterioration of the materials.
1.1 This test method covers laboratory procedures for determining the resistance of metallic materials to scratching abrasion by means of the dry sand/rubber wheel test. It is the intent of this test method to produce data that will reproducibly rank materials in their resistance to scratching abrasion under a specified set of conditions.
1.2 Abrasion test results are reported as volume loss in cubic millimetres for the particular test procedure specified. Materials of higher abrasion resistance will have a lower volume loss.
Note 1—In order to attain uniformity among laboratories, it is the intent of this test method to require that volume loss due to abrasion be reported only in the metric system as cubic millimetres. 1 mm3 = 6.102 × 10 −5 in3.
1.3 This test method covers five recommended procedures which are appropriate for specific degrees of wear resistance or thicknesses of the test material.
1.3.1 Procedure A—This is a relatively severe test which will rank metallic materials on a wide volume loss scale from low to extreme abrasion resistance. It is particularly useful in ranking materials of medium to extreme abrasion resistance.
1.3.2 Procedure B—A short-term variation of Procedure A. It may be used for highly abrasive resistant materials but is particularly useful in the ranking of medium- and low-abrasive-resistant materials. Procedure B should be used when the volume–loss values developed by Procedure A exceeds 100 mm3.
1.3.3 Procedure C—A short-term variation of Procedure A for use on thin coatings.
1.3.4 Procedure D—This is a lighter load variation of Procedure A which is particularly useful in ranking materials of low-abrasion resistance. It is also used in ranking materials of a specific generic type or materials which would be very close in the volume loss rates as developed by Procedure A.
1.3.5 Procedure E—A short-term variation of Procedure B that is useful in the ranking of materials with medium- or low-abrasion resistance.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness
E11 Specification for Woven Wire Test Sieve Cloth and Test Sieves
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
G40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion
American Foundrymens Society StandardsAFSFoundrySandHandbo Edition Available from American Foundrymens Society, Golf and Wolf Roads, Des Plaines, IL 60016.
ICS Number Code 17.040.20 (Properties of surfaces)
UNSPSC Code 41114601(Abrasion testers)