Active Standard ASTM G48 | Developed by Subcommittee: G01.05
Book of Standards Volume: 03.02
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
Significance and Use
These test methods describe laboratory tests for comparing the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to the initiation of pitting and crevice corrosion. The results may be used for ranking alloys in order of increasing resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion initiation under the specific conditions of these methods. Methods A and B are designed to cause the breakdown of Type 304 at room temperature.
The use of ferric chloride solutions is justified because it is related to, but not the same as, that within a pit or crevice site on a ferrous alloy in chloride bearing environments (1, 2). The presence of an inert crevice former of consistent dimension on a surface is regarded as sufficient specification of crevice geometry to assess relative crevice corrosion susceptibility.
The relative performance of alloys in ferric chloride solution tests has been correlated to performance in certain real environments, such as natural seawater at ambient temperature (3) and strongly oxidizing, low pH, chloride containing environments (4), but several exceptions have been reported (4-7).
Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F can be used to rank the relative resistance of stainless steels and nickel base alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments. No statement can be made about resistance of alloys in environments that do not contain chlorides.
Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F were designed to accelerate the time to initiate localized corrosion relative to most natural environments. Consequently, the degree of corrosion damage that occurs during testing will generally be greater than that in natural environments in any similar time period.
No statement regarding localized corrosion propagation can be made based on the results of Methods A, B, C, D, E or F.
Surface preparation can significantly influence results. Therefore, grinding and pickling of the specimen will mean that the results may not be representative of the conditions of the actual piece from which the sample was taken.
Note 1—Grinding or pickling on stainless steel surfaces may destroy the passive layer. A 24-h air passivation after grinding or pickling is sufficient to minimize these differences (8).
The procedures in Methods C, D, E and F for measuring critical pitting corrosion temperature and critical crevice corrosion temperature have no bias because the values are defined only in terms of these test methods.
Note 2—When testing as-welded, cylindrical, or other non-flat samples, the standard crevice formers will not provide uniform contact. The use of contoured crevice formers may be considered in such situations, but the use of a pitting test (Practices A, C, or E) should be considered.
1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the determination of the resistance of stainless steels and related alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion (see Terminology G15) when exposed to oxidizing chloride environments. Six procedures are described and identified as Methods A, B, C, D, E, and F.
1.1.1 Method A—Ferric chloride pitting test.
1.1.2 Method B—Ferric chloride crevice test.
1.1.3 Method C—Critical pitting temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys.
1.1.4 Method D—Critical crevice temperature test for nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys.
1.1.5 Method E—Critical pitting temperature test for stainless steels.
1.1.6 Method F—Critical crevice temperature test for stainless steels.
1.2 Method A is designed to determine the relative pitting resistance of stainless steels and nickel-base, chromium-bearing alloys, whereas Method B can be used for determining both the pitting and crevice corrosion resistance of these alloys. Methods C, D, E and F allow for a ranking of alloys by minimum (critical) temperature to cause initiation of pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion, respectively, of stainless steels, nickel-base and chromium-bearing alloys in a standard ferric chloride solution.
1.3 These tests may be used to determine the effects of alloying additives, heat treatment, and surface finishes on pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Other units are given in parentheses for information only.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A262 Practices for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels
D1193 Specification for Reagent Water
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
E1338 Guide for Identification of Metals and Alloys in Computerized Material Property Databases
G1 Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens
G15 Terminology Relating to Corrosion and Corrosion Testing
G46 Guide for Examination and Evaluation of Pitting Corrosion
G107 Guide for Formats for Collection and Compilation of Corrosion Data for Metals for Computerized Database Input
ICS Number Code 77.060 (Corrosion of metals)