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Significance and Use
The bent-beam specimen is designed for determining the stress-corrosion behavior of alloy sheets and plates in a variety of environments. The bent-beam specimens are designed for testing at stress levels below the elastic limit of the alloy. For testing in the plastic range, U-bend specimens should be employed (see Practice G30). Although it is possible to stress bent-beam specimens into the plastic range, the stress level cannot be calculated for plastically-stressed three- and four-point loaded specimens as well as the double-beam specimens. Therefore, the use of bent-beam specimens in the plastic range is not recommended for general use.
1.1 This practice covers procedures for designing, preparing, and using bent-beam stress-corrosion specimens.
1.2 Different specimen configurations are given for use with different product forms, such as sheet or plate. This practice applicable to specimens of any metal that are stressed to levels less than the elastic limit of the material, and therefore, the applied stress can be accurately calculated or measured (see Note 1). Stress calculations by this practice are not applicable to plastically stressed specimens.
Note 1—It is the nature of these practices that only the applied stress can be calculated. Since stress-corrosion cracking is a function of the total stress, for critical applications and proper interpretation of results, the residual stress (before applying external stress) or the total elastic stress (after applying external stress) should be determined by appropriate nondestructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction (1).
1.3 Test procedures are given for stress-corrosion testing by exposure to gaseous and liquid environments.
1.4 The bent-beam test is best suited for flat product forms, such as sheet, strip, and plate. For plate material the bent-beam specimen is more difficult to use because more rugged specimen holders must be built to accommodate the specimens. A double-beam modification of a four-point loaded specimen to utilize heavier materials is described in 10.5.
1.5 The exposure of specimens in a corrosive environment is treated only briefly since other practices deal with this aspect, for example, Specification D1141, and Practices G30, G36, G44, G50, and G85. The experimenter is referred to ASTM Special Technical Publication 425 (2).
1.6 The bent-beam practice generally constitutes a constant strain (deflection) test. Once cracking has initiated, the state of stress at the tip of the crack as well as in uncracked areas has changed, and therefore, the known or calculated stress or strain values discussed in this practice apply only to the state of stress existing before initiation of cracks.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The inch-pound values in parentheses are provided for information.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (For more specific safety hazard information see Section 7 and 12.1.)
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1141 Practice for the Preparation of Substitute Ocean Water
G30 Practice for Making and Using U-Bend Stress-Corrosion Test Specimens
G36 Practice for Evaluating Stress-Corrosion-Cracking Resistance of Metals and Alloys in a Boiling Magnesium Chloride Solution
G44 Practice for Exposure of Metals and Alloys by Alternate Immersion in Neutral 3.5 % Sodium Chloride Solution
G50 Practice for Conducting Atmospheric Corrosion Tests on Metals
G85 Practice for Modified Salt Spray (Fog) Testing
NACE DocumentsNACETM0177-96 Laboratory Testing of Metals for Resistance to Specific Forms of Environmental Cracking in H2S Environments
ICS Number Code 77.040.10 (Mechanical testing of metals); 77.060 (Corrosion of metals)