ASTM F981 - 04(2010)

    Standard Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of Biomaterials for Surgical Implants with Respect to Effect of Materials on Muscle and Bone

    Active Standard ASTM F981 | Developed by Subcommittee: F04.16

    Book of Standards Volume: 13.01


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    Significance and Use

    This practice covers a test protocol for comparing the local tissue response evoked by biomaterials, from which medical implantable devices might ultimately be fabricated, with the local tissue response elicited by control materials currently accepted for the fabrication of surgical devices. The materials may include metals (and metal alloys), dense aluminum oxide, and polyethylene that are standardized on the basis of acceptable long-term well-characterized long-term response. The controls consistently produce cellular reaction and wound healing to a degree that has been found to be acceptable to the host.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice provides a series of experimental protocols for biological assays of tissue reaction to nonabsorbable biomaterials for surgical implants. It assesses the effects of the material on animal tissue in which it is implanted. The experimental protocol is not designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the systemic toxicity, immune response, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, or mutagenicity of the material since other standards deal with these issues. It applies only to materials with projected applications in humans where the materials will reside in bone or soft tissue in excess of 30 days and will remain unabsorbed. It is recommended that short-term assays, according to Practice F763, first be performed. Applications in other organ systems or tissues may be inappropriate and are therefore excluded. Control materials will consist of any one of the metal alloys in Specifications F67, F75, F90, F136, F138, or F562, high purity dense aluminum oxide as described in Specification F603, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene as stated in Specification F648 or USP polyethylene negative control.

    1.2 This practice is a combination of Practice and Practice . The purpose, basic procedure, and method of evaluation of each type of material are similar; therefore, they have been combined.

    1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    F67 Specification for Unalloyed Titanium, for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R50250, UNS R50400, UNS R50550, UNS R50700)

    F75 Specification for Cobalt-28 Chromium-6 Molybdenum Alloy Castings and Casting Alloy for Surgical Implants (UNS R30075)

    F86 Practice for Surface Preparation and Marking of Metallic Surgical Implants

    F90 Specification for Wrought Cobalt-20Chromium-15Tungsten-10Nickel Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30605)

    F136 Specification for Wrought Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vanadium ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R56401)

    F138 Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673)

    F361 Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of Metallic Materials for Surgical Implants with Respect to Effect of Materials on Tissue

    F469 Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of Nonporous Polymeric Materials for Surgical Implants with Regard to Effect of Materials on Tissue

    F562 Specification for Wrought 35Cobalt-35Nickel-20Chromium-10Molybdenum Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30035)

    F603 Specification for High-Purity Dense Aluminum Oxide for Medical Application

    F648 Specification for Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Powder and Fabricated Form for Surgical Implants

    F763 Practice for Short-Term Screening of Implant Materials


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 42295500(Surgical implants and expanders and extenders and surgical wires and related products)


    DOI: 10.1520/F0981-04R10

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