ASTM F790 - 08(2013)

    Standard Guide for Testing Materials for Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures

    Active Standard ASTM F790 | Developed by Subcommittee: F07.08

    Book of Standards Volume: 15.03


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    Significance and Use

    3.1 This guide is intended for use by material suppliers, aircraft transparent enclosure fabricators, air-frame manufacturers, government agencies, and others that may become involved in the testing of transparency components. These test methods provide data on both individual materials and material combinations commonly utilized in the fabrications of aerospace transparent enclosures comprised of monolithic plastic, coated monolithic plastic or laminated constructions containing plastics.

    3.2 Primary properties and their long term stability are critical to the performance of aerospace transparent enclosures. Property measurement tests define as-manufactured material properties of these materials. Aging procedures provide for exposure of parts or representative sections to environments that may induce changes in material properties as determined in property measurement tests. Property measurement tests performed before and after aging exposure provide a means of estimating the potential usable life span of a transparency or to compare the durability of one material with another.

    3.3 When employing these test methods for comparison of materials for weathering effects the user should be aware that the many factors influencing degradation due to weathering vary from one location to another. For direct weathering comparisons, all material(s) should undergo exposure conditions and property measurements testing at the same time.

    3.4 The test methods listed include those considered critical to the performance of aircraft transparent enclosures. Other test methods to evaluate materials may also be performed. Additional test methods are in preparation and will be incorporated. The user is advised to employ the latest revision of any test method.

    3.5 The dominant component of all transparent enclosures is one, or more, rigid transparent sheet(s). The sheet(s) must permit the necessary visibility while providing structural integrity and protecting the aircraft interior from external environments as required by the specific aircraft design.

    3.6 In its most simple form, the rigid transparent sheet may be the only component of a transparent enclosure.

    3.7 When more than one rigid transparent sheet is employed, the sheets are laminated with a controlled thickness with either an air gap or with a transparent adhesive known as an interlayer.

    3.8 Transparent enclosure designs may use multiple rigid transparent sheets to take advantage of specific properties of different materials. In this instance, there will be functions required of one of the sheets but not the other.

    3.9 The test methods, practices and guides listed are a summary of the available test methods applicable to plastic transparent enclosures. They are presented in this format to simplify the search and to enable the user to determine if a method applicable to his requirements is available.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This guide is intended to summarize the standard test methods available on individual and composite materials utilized in fabrication of aerospace plastic transparent enclosures. As such, it is intended to specifically include transparent thermoplastics, transparent elastomers, and reinforced plastics, whether thermoplastic or thermosetting.

    1.2 This guide is intended as an aid in the search for test methods pertinent to Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures. It should be understood that all methods listed may not apply to all enclosures.

    1.3 The standards included refer to the properties or aspects listed in Table 1. The properties or aspects are listed in alphabetical order and the descriptions used are intended to facilitate the search.

    TABLE 1 Property or Aspects of Aerospace Plastic Transparent Enclosures

    Property or Aspect

    Test Method

    Abrasion Resistance

    D1044

    Abrasion Resistance—Oscillating Sand

    F735

    Abrasion Testing—Sizing Sand for

    C117

    Bearing Strength

    D953

    Bird Impact Resistance

    F330

    Bond Integrity

    F521

    Brittleness Temperature—By Impact

    D746

    Chemical Resistance

    D543

    Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion

    D696

    Compressive Properties

    D695

    Electrical Insulating Material—DC Resistance or Conductance

    D257

    Electrical Insulating Material—Dielectric Breakdown Voltage

    D149

    Electrical Insulating Material—Dielectric Constant

    D150

    Electrical Insulating Material—Flexural Properties

    D790

    Electrical Insulating Material—Impact Resistance

    D256

    Electrical Insulating Material—Rockwell Hardness

    D785

    Environmental Resistance

    F520

    Exposure Apparatus Operation—Carbon ARC Type

    D1499

    Exposure Apparatus Operation—Fluorescent UV Type

    G154

    Exposure Apparatus Operation—Xenon ARC Type

    D2565

    Flow Rate

    D1238

    Glass Transition Temperature

    E1640

    Hail Impact Resistance

    F320

    Hardness—Barcol

    D2583

    Hardness—Durometer

    D2240

    Heating Elements—Detection of Flaws

    F319

    Ignition Loss

    D2584

    Impact Resistance—Falling Weight

    D5420

    Impact Resistance—Falling Weight (Polycarbonate)

    F736

    Index of Refraction

    D542

    Interlayer Material Selection

    F942

    Light Transmissivity

    F1316

    Luminous Transmittance and Haze

    D1003

    Optical Angular Deviation

    F801

    Optical Angular Displacement—Multiple Images

    F1165

    Optical Binocular Disparity

    F1181

    Optical Distortion and Deviation—Double Exposure

    F733

    Optical Reflectivity

    F1252

    Peel Resistance—Floating Roller

    D3167

    Rubber Properties in Tension

    D412

    Scratches—Intensity of

    F548

    Shear Strength—Fusion Bonded Polycarbonate

    F734

    Shear Strength and Modulus—Interlayer Materials

    F1362

    Softening Temperature

    D1525

    Specific Gravity and Density

    D792

    Specific Heat

    D2766

    Stress Crazing

    F791

    Stress Crazing

    F484

    Tear Resistance

    D624

    Tear Resistance—Initial

    D1004

    Tensile Properties

    D638

    Water Absorption

    D570


    1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    C117 Test Method for Materials Finer than 75-m (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing

    D149 Test Method for Dielectric Breakdown Voltage and Dielectric Strength of Solid Electrical Insulating Materials at Commercial Power Frequencies

    D150 Test Methods for AC Loss Characteristics and Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Solid Electrical Insulation

    D256 Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics

    D257 Test Methods for DC Resistance or Conductance of Insulating Materials

    D412 Test Methods for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers--Tension

    D542 Test Method for Index of Refraction of Transparent Organic Plastics

    D543 Practices for Evaluating the Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents

    D570 Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics

    D624 Test Method for Tear Strength of Conventional Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Elastomers

    D638 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics

    D695 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics

    D696 Test Method for Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion of Plastics Between -30C and 30C with a Vitreous Silica Dilatometer

    D746 Test Method for Brittleness Temperature of Plastics and Elastomers by Impact

    D785 Test Method for Rockwell Hardness of Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials

    D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials

    D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement

    D953 Test Method for Bearing Strength of Plastics

    D1003 Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics

    D1004 Test Method for Tear Resistance (Graves Tear) of Plastic Film and Sheeting

    D1044 Test Method for Resistance of Transparent Plastics to Surface Abrasion

    D1238 Test Method for Melt Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer

    D1499 Practice for Filtered Open-Flame Carbon-Arc Exposures of Plastics

    D1525 Test Method for Vicat Softening Temperature of Plastics

    D2240 Test Method for Rubber Property--Durometer Hardness

    D2565 Practice for Xenon-Arc Exposure of Plastics Intended for Outdoor Applications

    D2583 Test Method for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of a Barcol Impressor

    D2584 Test Method for Ignition Loss of Cured Reinforced Resins

    D2766 Test Method for Specific Heat of Liquids and Solids

    D3167 Test Method for Floating Roller Peel Resistance of Adhesives

    D5420 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Flat, Rigid Plastic Specimen by Means of a Striker Impacted by a Falling Weight (Gardner Impact)

    E1640 Test Method for Assignment of the Glass Transition Temperature By Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    F319 Practice for Polarized Light Detection of Flaws in Aerospace Transparency Heating Elements

    F320 Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    F330 Test Method for Bird Impact Testing of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    F484 Test Method for Stress Crazing of Acrylic Plastics in Contact with Liquid or Semi-Liquid Compounds

    F520 Test Method for Environmental Resistance of Aerospace Transparencies to Artificially Induced Exposures

    F521 Test Methods for Bond Integrity of Transparent Laminates

    F548 Test Method for Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics

    F733 Practice for Optical Distortion and Deviation of Transparent Parts Using the Double-Exposure Method

    F734 Test Method for Shear Strength of Fusion Bonded Polycarbonate Aerospace Glazing Material

    F735 Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Transparent Plastics and Coatings Using the Oscillating Sand Method

    F736 Test Method for Impact Resistance of Monolithic Polycarbonate Sheet by Means of a Falling Weight

    F791 Test Method for Stress Crazing of Transparent Plastics

    F801 Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts

    F942 Guide for Selection of Test Methods for Interlayer Materials for Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    F1165 Test Method for Measuring Angular Displacement of Multiple Images in Transparent Parts

    F1181 Test Method for Measuring Binocular Disparity in Transparent Parts

    F1252 Test Method for Measuring Optical Reflectivity of Transparent Materials

    F1316 Test Method for Measuring the Transmissivity of Transparent Parts

    F1362 Test Method for Shear Strength and Shear Modulus of Aerospace Glazing Interlayer Materials

    G154 Practice for Operating Fluorescent Ultraviolet (UV) Lamp Apparatus for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 49.045 (Structure and structure elements)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code 25200000(Aerospace systems and components and equipment); 13101900(Thermoset plastics)


    DOI: 10.1520/F0790

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