Significance and Use
In order to choose the proper material for producing semiconductor devices, knowledge of material properties such as resistivity, Hall coefficient, and Hall mobility is useful. Under certain conditions, as outlined in the Appendix, other useful quantities for materials specification, including the charge carrier density and the drift mobility, can be inferred.
1.1 These test methods cover two procedures for measuring the resistivity and Hall coefficient of single-crystal semiconductor specimens. These test methods differ most substantially in their test specimen requirements.
1.1.1 Test Method A, van der Pauw (1) —This test method requires a singly connected test specimen (without any isolated holes), homogeneous in thickness, but of arbitrary shape. The contacts must be sufficiently small and located at the periphery of the specimen. The measurement is most easily interpreted for an isotropic semiconductor whose conduction is dominated by a single type of carrier.
1.1.2 Test Method B, Parallelepiped or Bridge-Type—This test method requires a specimen homogeneous in thickness and of specified shape. Contact requirements are specified for both the parallelepiped and bridge geometries. These test specimen geometries are desirable for anisotropic semiconductors for which the measured parameters depend on the direction of current flow. The test method is also most easily interpreted when conduction is dominated by a single type of carrier.
1.2 These test methods do not provide procedures for shaping, cleaning, or contacting specimens; however, a procedure for verifying contact quality is given.
Note 1—Practice F 418 covers the preparation of gallium arsenide phosphide specimens.
1.3 The method in Practice F 418 does not provide an interpretation of the results in terms of basic semiconductor properties (for example, majority and minority carrier mobilities and densities). Some general guidance, applicable to certain semiconductors and temperature ranges, is provided in the Appendix. For the most part, however, the interpretation is left to the user.
1.4 Interlaboratory tests of these test methods (Section 19) have been conducted only over a limited range of resistivities and for the semiconductors, germanium, silicon, and gallium arsenide. However, the method is applicable to other semiconductors provided suitable specimen preparation and contacting procedures are known. The resistivity range over which the method is applicable is limited by the test specimen geometry and instrumentation sensitivity.
1.5 The values stated in acceptable metric units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. (See also 3.1.4.)
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D1125 Test Methods for Electrical Conductivity and Resistivity of Water
E2554 Practice for Estimating and Monitoring the Uncertainty of Test Results of a Test Method in a Single Laboratory Using a Control Sample Program
F26 Test Methods for Determining the Orientation of a Semiconductive Single Crystal
F43 Test Methods for Resistivity of Semiconductor Materials
F47 Test Method for Crystallographic Perfection of Silicon by Preferential Etch Techniques4
F418 Practice for Preparation of Samples of the Constant Composition Region of Epitaxial Gallium Arsenide Phosphide for Hall Effect Measurements
C1 Specifications for Reagents Available from Semiconductor Equipment and Materials Institute, 625 Ellis St., Suite 212, Mountain View, CA 94043.
gallium arsenide; Hall coefficient; Hall data; Hall mobility; Hall resistivity; semiconductor; silicon; single crystal; van der Pauw; Bridge-type electrical/electronic materials; Crystal lattice structure; Eight-contact semiconductor specimens; Electrical conductors (semiconductors); Electrical resistance/resistivity--semiconductors; Etching (materials/process); Gallium arsenide phosphide; Germanium--semiconductor applications; Hall effect measurement; Lamellar semiconductor materials; Paralleliped semiconductor materials; Single crystal silicon semiconductors;
ICS Number Code 29.045 (Semiconducting materials)
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