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Significance and Use
This test method is intended to be performed in conjunction with pin-on-flat wear machines or similar machines that are designed to evaluate simplified specimen geometries.
This test method is designed to evaluate combinations of materials with respect to the amount of polymer wear, where quantifiable wear occurs primarily on the polymeric component. With some combinations of materials, significant wear of the counterface may occur, with subsequent embedding of counterface debris particles in the polymer. Such an occurrence will render the weight loss of the polymer specimen unreliable as an indicator of the polymer wear.
Wear is reported as volume loss of the polymeric specimen as a function of sliding distance; however, if the sliding distance is not constant across the polymeric specimen surface due to complex motion patterns, wear may be reported as volume loss of the polymeric specimen as a function of wear cycles (in which case a “wear cycle” shall be defined). Volume loss of the polymer specimen is determined by dividing the experimental weight loss by the density of the polymer. For ease of interpretation, wear should be reported as a function of both the number of wear cycles and the sliding distance, when possible.
The reference for the comparative evaluation of candidate materials shall be the wear rate of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) conforming to Specification F648 bearing against counterfaces of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (in accordance with Specifications F75, F799, or F1537), having prosthetic-quality surface finish and lubricated with bovine blood serum (see 5.2).
1.1 This test method describes a laboratory method for evaluating the wear properties of combinations of materials that are being considered for use as bearing surfaces of human total joint prostheses. The body of this test method contains general methods which apply to all types of prosthesis wear applications while individual annexes describe specific wear test methods and clinical validation criteria tailored to each distinct wear application (for example, linear reciprocating motion, ball-cup (“hip-type”) wear, delamination wear, etc.). It is the intent of this test method to rank materials, within each wear application, for polymer wear rates under simulated physiological conditions. It must be recognized, however, that contact geometries and wear motions are simplified using such methods. This test method, therefore, represents only an initial stage in the full wear characterization of a candidate material.
1.2 All candidate materials should be tested in an appropriate joint simulator apparatus using prototype prostheses before being used in clinical trials in patients. The tests described in this test method are used to quickly and reliably screen material combinations for wear performance in different orthopaedic wear applications prior to committing them to more expensive and time-consuming joint simulator testing. In addition, these simplified tests can be used to relate material, surface finish, or other parameters to wear behavior on a more practical basis than is possible in joint simulator tests.
1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics
F75 Specification for Cobalt-28 Chromium-6 Molybdenum Alloy Castings and Casting Alloy for Surgical Implants (UNS R30075)
F86 Practice for Surface Preparation and Marking of Metallic Surgical Implants
F648 Specification for Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Powder and Fabricated Form for Surgical Implants
F799 Specification for Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloy Forgings for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, R31538, R31539)
F1537 Specification for Wrought Cobalt-28Chromium-6Molybdenum Alloys for Surgical Implants (UNS R31537, UNS R31538, and UNS R31539)
F2025 Practice for Gravimetric Measurement of Polymeric Components for Wear Assessment
G40 Terminology Relating to Wear and Erosion
ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)
UNSPSC Code 42294208(Orthopedic revision or total joint instrument systems)