Active Standard ASTM F436M | Developed by Subcommittee: F16.02
Book of Standards Volume: 01.08
Historical (view previous versions of standard)
This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for hardened steel washers for use with fasteners having nominal thread diameters of M12 through M100. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. The types of washers covered here are: Type 1—washers made of carbon steel; and Type 3—washers made of weathering steel. Moreover, the styles of washers covered here are: circular washers, which are suitable for applications where sufficient space exists and angularity permits; beveled washers, which are square and rectangular with a beveled 1:6 surface for use with American Standard beams and channels; and clipped washers, which are circular or beveled for use where space limitations necessitate that one side be clipped. Steels to be used to manufacture the washers shall be produced by the open-hearth, basic-oxygen, or electric-furnace process. Each type and style of washer shall be suitably sampled, and should conform to specified values of chemical composition, Rockwell hardness, inside and outside diameter, thickness, and clipped width.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers the chemical, mechanical, and dimensional requirements for metric hardened steel washers for use with fasteners having nominal thread diameters M12 through M100. These washers are intended for general-purpose mechanical and structural use with bolts, nuts, studs, and other internally and externally threaded fasteners. These washers are suitable for use with fasteners covered in Specifications A325M, A490M, A563Mand with fasteners of Specification F568M property classes 8.8 and higher.
1.2 The types of washers covered in this specification are:
1.2.1 Type 1—Washers made of carbon steel.
1.2.2 Type 3—Washers made of steel having atmospheric corrosion resistance and weathering characteristics comparable to that of steels covered in Specifications A242/A242M, A588/A588M, and A709/A709M. The atmospheric corrosion resistance of these steels is substantially better than that of carbon steel with or without copper addition. See 5.1. When properly exposed to the atmosphere, these steels can be used bare (uncoated) for many applications.
1.2.3 This specification provides for furnishing Type 3 to chemical composition or a Corrosion Resistance Index (CRI) of 6 or higher at the suppliers option.
1.3 The styles of washers covered in this specification are:
1.3.1 Circular Washers—Circular washers in nominal sizes 12 mm through 100 mm, are suitable for applications where sufficient space exists and angularity permits.
1.3.2 Beveled Washers—Beveled washers are square and rectangular, in nominal sizes 12 mm through 36 mm, with a beveled 1:6 surface for use with American Standard beams and channels.
1.3.3 Clipped Washers—Clipped washers are circular or beveled for use where space limitations necessitate that one side be clipped.
1.4 Terms used in this specification are defined in Terminology F1789 unless otherwise defined herein.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
Note 1—This specification is the metric counterpart of Specification F436.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A153/A153M Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware
A242/A242M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel
A325M Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated 830 MPa Minimum Tensile Strength (Metric)
A490M Specification for High-Strength Steel Bolts, Classes 10.9 and 10.9.3, for Structural Steel Joints (Metric)
A563M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts (Metric)
A588/A588M Specification for High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel, up to 50 ksi [345 MPa] Minimum Yield Point, with Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance
A709/A709M Specification for Structural Steel for Bridges
A751 Test Methods, Practices, and Terminology for Chemical Analysis of Steel Products
B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel
D3951 Practice for Commercial Packaging
F436 Specification for Hardened Steel Washers
F568M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Externally Threaded Metric Fasteners (Metric)
F606M Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, and Rivets (Metric)
F1136M Specification for Zinc/Aluminum Corrosion Protective Coatings for Fasteners (Metric)
F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection
F1789 Terminology for F16 Mechanical Fasteners
G101 Guide for Estimating the Atmospheric Corrosion Resistance of Low-Alloy Steels
ANSI StandardB 18.23.2M Metric Beveled Washers
ICS Number Code 21.060.30 (Washers, locking elements)