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Significance and Use
The quality and consequently the clinical performance of implants may be affected by residues. Residues may induce no tissue response, minor tissue irritations, or they may lead to local inflammation of tissues surrounding the implant which may lead to failure in short-term or long-term use. Residues may also cause harm at locations away from the implant. Residues may originate from manufacturing materials used in the course of processing, or may be the result of handling and packaging (1-3).
This practice shall be used to report the results of testing for residue. All residues cannot necessarily be detected. It suggests standard techniques that may be applied for analysis, and provides suggestions for how limit values may be set.
Residues may be of inorganic, organic, or biological nature. They may exhibit as surface bound substance, or as an adsorbate (for example, electrostatically held), an efflorescence, or a mechanically held substance. Residues may be soluble in aqueous media, soluble in organic solvents, or may be insoluble particulates.
Data generated in validation processes, that is, cleaning validation or sterility validation may be used as results or as basis for setting acceptance criteria in the report.
1.1 The purpose of this practice is to describe how the cleanliness of single use implants as manufactured shall be reported. This practice proposes how to approach the identification of critical compounds and suggests different analytical methods.
1.2 The practice does not address substances which are intrinsic to the implant properties or design. In particular, it does not address substances released during implant resorption, implant coatings, or leachables by design.
1.3 This practice does not address the cleanliness of implants which are re-processed, re-cleaned after unpacking for re-use in the hospital or by the manufacturer.
1.4 This practice does not establish limit values for residues.
1.5 This practice suggests appropriate test methods for the general specification of residues and residue requirements of implants. This practice may also be used to characterize semi-finished components for implants.
1.6 The test methods suggested and described herein refer to established analytical methods and to existing standard methods for chemical, biochemical, or biological analysis.
1.7 This practice is intended solely to provide guidance regarding suitable test methods and reporting conventions for residues, which may or may not affect implant biocompatibility. This practice does not suggest or recommend test methods for biocompatibility, which may be found in Practice F748 or in ISO 10993-1.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E996 Practice for Reporting Data in Auger Electron Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
E1078 Guide for Specimen Preparation and Mounting in Surface Analysis
E1504 Practice for Reporting Mass Spectral Data in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
E1635 Practice for Reporting Imaging Data in Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)
E1829 Guide for Handling Specimens Prior to Surface Analysis
F561 Practice for Retrieval and Analysis of Medical Devices, and Associated Tissues and Fluids
F748 Practice for Selecting Generic Biological Test Methods for Materials and Devices
F1251 Terminology Relating to Polymeric Biomaterials in Medical and Surgical Devices
F1877 Practice for Characterization of Particles
F2459 Test Method for Extracting Residue from Metallic Medical Components and Quantifying via Gravimetric Analysis
F2809 Terminology Relating to Medical and Surgical Materials and Devices
G121 Practice for Preparation of Contaminated Test Coupons for the Evaluation of Cleaning Agents
G131 Practice for Cleaning of Materials and Components by Ultrasonic Techniques
G136 Practice for Determination of Soluble Residual Contaminants in Materials by Ultrasonic Extraction
ISO StandardsISO11737-1 Sterilization of Medical Devices--Microbiological Methods--Part 1: Determination of a Population of Microorganisms on Products
United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Document<85> Bacterial Endotoxin Test
ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)
UNSPSC Code 42295500(Surgical implants and expanders and extenders and surgical wires and related products)