ASTM F2437 - 14

    Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Cap Screws, Bolts, Anchors, and Studs

    Active Standard ASTM F2437 | Developed by Subcommittee: F16.02

    Book of Standards Volume: 01.08


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    Abstract

    This specification covers the requirements for carbon and alloy steel compressible-washer-type direct tension indicators (DTIs) capable of indicating a specified bolt tension in cap screws, bolts, anchors, and studs. These DTIs are intended for installation under a bolt or cap screw head, a hex nut, or against a hardened washer or other flat hardened surface. The following are two types of DTIs: Type 1 DTIs are suitable for comparatively large bearing surfaces and Type 2 DTIs are suitable for comparatively smaller bearing surfaces. DTIs shall have a configuration produced by extrusion, punching, pressing, or similar forming to permit a measurable decrease in thickness when placed in compression. The design shall be such that the degree of plastic deformation of the protrusions shall indicate the tension in a tightened cap screw, bolt, anchor, or stud. The process used for heat treatment of DTIs, if required, shall be through-hardening by heating to a temperature above the upper transformation temperature, quenching in oil, and then tempering by reheating to a suitable temperature to attain desired mechanical/performance properties. Protective coatings, platings, or finishes may be applied on the DTIs if specified. Compression load and hardness of the DTIs shall be determined by performing mechanical tests.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for carbon and alloy steel compressible-washer-type direct tension indicators capable of indicating a specified bolt tension in cap screws, bolts, anchors, and studs.

    1.2 Direct tension indicators in nominal diameter sizes 1/4 through 21/2 in. are covered.

    1.3 There are two Types of DTIs covered by this specification, Type 1 and Type 2.

    1.3.1 Type 1 DTIs are suitable for comparatively large bearing surfaces. Type 1 DTIs are available in Grades 55 and 105, which differ in the amount of tension they indicate at a prescribed gap (see Table 1).

    Note 1Examples of a comparatively large bearing surface would include heavy hex bolts, heavy hex nuts, and so forth.
    TABLE 1 Acceptable Range of Compression LoadA

    DTI
    Nominal
    Diameter
    (in.)

    Mean Compression LoadB Range
    in Pounds (lbs)

    Mean Compression LoadC Range
    in Pounds (lbs)

    Grade 5

    Grade 8

    Grade 55

    Grade 105

    1/4 

    2200 to 2450

    3100 to 3450

    . . .

    . . .

    5/16 

    3500 to 3850

    4950 to 5500

    . . .

    . . .

    3/8 

    5300 to 5850

    7500 to 8300

    . . .

    . . .

    7/16 

    7200 to 7900

    10 100 to 11 200

    . . .

    . . .

    1/2 

    9700 to 10 700

    13 700 to 15 340

    4450 to 4900

    8500 to 9400

    9/16 

    12 350 to 13 600

    17 400 to 19 200

    5700 to 6300

    10 900 to 12 050

    5/8 

    15 550 to 17 200

    21 850 to 24 200

    7050 to 7800

    13 500 to 15 000

    3/4 

    22 600 to 25 000

    31 900 to 35 300

    10 500 to 11 600

    20 000 to 22 150

    7/8 

    30 850 to 34 100

    43 550 to 48 100

    14 500 to 16 000

    27 650 to 30 550

    1

    40 200 to 44 400

    56 700 to 62 700

    19 000 to 21 000

    36 250 to 40 100

    11/8 

    40 250 to 44 450

    73 150 to 80 900

    23 950 to 26 450

    47 300 to 52 300

    11/4 

    51 100 to 56 450

    91 750 to 101 450

    30 400 to 33 600

    59 850 to 66 150

    13/8 

    61 150 to 67 600

    112 450 to 124 250

    38 550 to 42 600

    73 800 to 81 600

    11/2 

    74 350 to 82 150

    135 150 to 149 400

    44 050 to 48 700

    89 300 to 98 700

    15/8 

    . . .

    . . .

    55 800 to 61 700

    106 200 to 117 400

    13/4 

    74 450 to 82 300

    177 850 to 196 500

    59 550 to 65 850

    124 600 to 137 750

    17/8 

    ...

    206 050 to 227 750

    75 550 to 83 500

    144 500 to 159 700

    2

    98 000 to 108 300

    236 850 to 261 750

    78 650 to 86 950

    165 800 to 183 300

    21/4 

    127 400 to 140 800

    277 900 to 307 100

    102 050 to 112 750

    212 900 to 235 350

    21/2 

    156 750 to 173 250

    379 600 to 419 600

    125 400 to 138 600

    240 550 to 265 850

    A Compression load requirements establish the capability of the direct tension indicators to satisfy typical tension requirements for these grades. The user is not obliged to install fasteners and DTIs to these tensions, and is free to specify installation to lower tension values. When so specified, the DTI supplier shall provide a load-gap curve in accordance with 15.2 to enable the user to select the appropriate gap criteria for the intended target tension of the application.
    B The Mean compression load values for Grades 5 and 8 in nominal sizes up through 1-1/2 in are based upon 75% of the proof load for SAE J429 cap screws. For Grade 5 in nominal sizes over 1-1/2 in and up to 2-1/2 in inclusive, the mean compression load values are based on 75% of the proof load for ASTM A449. For grade 8 in nominal sizes over 1-1/2 in and up to 2-1/2 in inclusive, mean compression load values are based upon 75 % of the proof load for ASTM A354BD.
    C Mean compression load values for Grades 55 and 105 are based upon 60 % of the yield strength for the matching fasteners on which they are used.

    1.3.2 Type 2 DTIs are suitable for comparatively smaller bearing surfaces.Type 2 DTIs are available in Grades 5 and 8, which differ in the amount of tension they indicate at a prescribed gap (see Table 1).

    Note 2Examples of a comparatively small bearing surface would include a hex cap screw, hex nut, and so forth.

    1.4 Direct tension indicators are intended for installation under a bolt or cap screw head, a hex nut, or against a hardened washer or other flat hardened surface.

    1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

    1.6 The following precautionary statement pertains only to the test method portions, Section 12 and Appendix XI of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    A193/A193M Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting for High Temperature or High Pressure Service and Other Special Purpose Applications

    A194/A194M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts for Bolts for High Pressure or High Temperature Service, or Both

    A307 Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60 000 PSI Tensile Strength

    A325 Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength

    A354 Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners

    A449 Specification for Hex Cap Screws, Bolts and Studs, Steel, Heat Treated, 120/105/90 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength, General Use

    A563 Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts

    B633 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc on Iron and Steel

    B695 Specification for Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel

    F436 Specification for Hardened Steel Washers

    F606 Test Methods for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Externally and Internally Threaded Fasteners, Washers, Direct Tension Indicators, and Rivets

    F1470 Practice for Fastener Sampling for Specified Mechanical Properties and Performance Inspection

    F1554 Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105-ksi Yield Strength

    F1941 Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings on Threaded Fasteners (Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN/UNR))

    ASME Standards

    ASMEB18.2.8 Clearance Holes for Bolts Screws, and Studs

    SAE Standard

    SAEJ995 Mechanical and Material Requirements for Steel Nuts


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 21.060.01 (Fasteners in general)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/F2437-14

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM F2437-14, Standard Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Compressible-Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use with Cap Screws, Bolts, Anchors, and Studs, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014, www.astm.org

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