Significance and Use
All testing shall define fender performance under velocities that decrease linearly or that are proportional to the square root of percent of remaining rated energy.
Rated performance data (RPD) and manufacturers' published performance curves or tables, or both, shall be based on: (1) initial deflection (berthing) velocity of 0.15 m/s and decreasing to no more than 0.005 m/s at test end, (2) testing of fully broken-in fenders (break-in testing is not required for pneumatic fenders), (3) testing of fenders stabilized at 23 ± 5°C (excluding pneumatic fenders; see 6.3), (4) testing of fenders at 0° angle of approach, and (5) deflection (berthing) frequency of not less than 1 h (use a minimum 5-min deflection frequency for pneumatic fenders.).
Catalogues shall also include nominal performance tolerances as well as data and methodology to adjust performance curves or tables or both for application parameters different from RPD conditions. Adjustment factors shall be provided for the following variables: (1) other initial velocities: 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 m/s; (2) other temperatures: +50, +40, +30, +10, 0, −10, −20, −30; and (3) other contact angles: 3, 5, 8, 10, 15°. In addition, RPD shall contain a cautionary statement that published data do not necessarily apply to constant-load and cyclic-loading conditions. In such cases, designers are to contact fender manufacturers for design assistance.
Adjustment factors for velocity and temperature shall be provided for every catalogue compound or other energy absorbing material offered by each manufacturer.
Fender Testing—Performance testing to establish RPD must use either one of two methods:
Method A—Deflection of full-size fenders at velocities inversely proportional to the percent of rated deflection or directly proportional to the square root of percent of remaining rated energy. Test parameters shall be as defined for published RPD. RPD tests shall start at 0.15 m/s. Tests to establish adjustment factors for initial berthing velocities other than 0.15 m/s shall start at those other initial velocities.
Method B—Deflection of full size fenders at constant velocity with performance adjusted by velocity factors developed from model tests. Velocity factors shall be the ratio of performance test results of models under the following conditions: (1) a constant strain rate similar to the strain rate of the full-size fender at its test speed, and (2) decreasing speed deflection with initial strain rate similar to that of the full-size fender under RPD deflection conditions.
The RPD for pneumatic fenders shall be determined using either Method A or Method B with miniature-size fenders; in which case, the compression performance of air shall be directly extrapolated from the test data of reduced scale models.
1.1 This test method covers the recommended procedures for quantitative testing, reporting, and verifying the energy absorption and reaction force of marine fenders. Marine fenders are available in a variety of basic types with several variations of each type and multiple sizes and stiffnesses for each variation. Depending on the particular design, marine fenders may also include integral components of steel, composites, plastics, or other materials. All variations shall be performance tested and reported according to this test method.
1.2 There are three performance variables: berthing energy, reaction, and deflection. There are two methods used to develop rated performance data (RPD) and published performance curves for the three performance variables.
1.3 The primary focus is on fenders used in berthside and ship-to-ship applications for marine vessels. This testing protocol does not address small fendering “bumpers” used in pleasure boat marinas, mounted to hulls of work boats, or used in similar applications; it does not include durability testing. Its primary purpose is to ensure that engineering data reported in manufacturers' catalogues are based upon common testing methods.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
berthing; berthing energy; deflection; energy absorption; fender; fender testing; rated performance data; reaction; temperature factor; velocity factor; Berths/berthing; Deflection; Energy absorption; Foam-filled fenders; Linear changes/linearity; Hulls; Marine fenders; Performance--marine (shipboard) materials/applications; Pneumatic (air-filled) fenders; Quantitative analysis/measurement; Reaction force analysis; Reporting data; Solid rubber fenders; Velocity;
ICS Number Code 47.020.01 (General standards related to shipbuilding and marine structures)
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Citing ASTM Standards
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