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Significance and Use
This guide contains a listing of those characterization parameters that are directly related to the functionality of alginate. This guide can be used as an aid in the selection and characterization of the appropriate alginate for a particular application. This guide is intended to give guidance in the methods and types of testing necessary to properly characterize, assess, and ensure consistency in the performance of a particular alginate. It may have use in the regulation of these devices by appropriate authorities.
The alginate covered by this guide may be gelled, extruded, or otherwise formulated into biomedical devices for use in tissue-engineered medical products or drug delivery devices for implantation as determined to be appropriate, based on supporting biocompatibility and physical test data. Recommendations in this guide should not be interpreted as a guarantee of clinical success in any tissue engineered medical product or drug delivery application.
To ensure that the material supplied satisfies requirements for use in TEMPS, several general areas of characterization should be considered. These are: identity of alginate, physical and chemical characterization and testing, impurities profile, and performance-related tests.
1.1 This guide covers the evaluation of alginates suitable for use in biomedical or pharmaceutical applications, or both, including, but not limited to, tissue-engineered medical products (TEMPS).
1.2 This guide addresses key parameters relevant for the functionality, characterization, and purity of alginates.
1.3 As with any material, some characteristics of alginates may be altered by processing techniques (such as molding, extrusion, machining, assembly, sterilization, and so forth) required for the production of a specific part or device. Therefore, properties of fabricated forms of this polymer should be evaluated using test methods that are appropriate to ensure safety and efficacy and are not addressed in this guide.
1.4 Warning—Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website (http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, in your state may be prohibited by state law.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D2196 Test Methods for Rheological Properties of Non-Newtonian Materials by Rotational (Brookfield type) Viscometer
F619 Practice for Extraction of Medical Plastics
F748 Practice for Selecting Generic Biological Test Methods for Materials and Devices
F749 Practice for Evaluating Material Extracts by Intracutaneous Injection in the Rabbit
F756 Practice for Assessment of Hemolytic Properties of Materials
F763 Practice for Short-Term Screening of Implant Materials
F813 Practice for Direct Contact Cell Culture Evaluation of Materials for Medical Devices
F895 Test Method for Agar Diffusion Cell Culture Screening for Cytotoxicity
F981 Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of Biomaterials for Surgical Implants with Respect to Effect of Materials on Muscle and Bone
F1251 Terminology Relating to Polymeric Biomaterials in Medical and Surgical Devices
F1439 Guide for Performance of Lifetime Bioassay for the Tumorigenic Potential of Implant Materials
F1903 Practice for Testing For Biological Responses to Particles In Vitro
F1904 Practice for Testing the Biological Responses to Particles in vivo
F1905 Practice For Selecting Tests for Determining the Propensity of Materials to Cause Immunotoxicity
F1906 Practice for Evaluation of Immune Responses In Biocompatibility Testing Using ELISA Tests, Lymphocyte Proliferation, and Cell Migration
USP DocumentUSPMonographUSP24/NF Sodium Alginate Available from U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), 12601 Twinbrook Pkwy., Rockville, MD 20852.
ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)
UNSPSC Code 42295525(Biological tissue implant)