ASTM F2020 - 02a(2009)

    Standard Practice for Design, Construction, and Procurement of Emergency Medical Services Systems (EMSS) Ambulances

    Active Standard ASTM F2020 | Developed by Subcommittee: F30.01

    Book of Standards Volume: 13.02


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    Abstract

    This practice covers certified, tested, commercial type, EMSS ambulances built on chassis that are suitable for the intended application and meet the requirements herein, it also covers the design, construction, and procurement of emergency medical services systems ambulances. Types: type I-conventional truck, cab-chassis with modular ambulance body, type I-AD (additional duty-with increased GVWR, storage, and payload capacity)-A or B or neonatal, critical patient transport, or A or B with rescue and fire suppression package, type II-standard van, integral cab-body ambulance, type III-cutaway van, cab-chassis with integral or containerized modular body ambulance, and type III-AD (additional duty-with increased GVWR, storage, and payload capacity) A or B or neonatal, critical patient transport, or A or B with rescue, or fire suppression package, or both. Performance test, vehicle weight test, road test, water spray test, and oxygen system test shall be performed to meet the requirements prescribed.

    This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.

    1. Scope

    1.1 This practice covers certified, tested, commercial type, EMSS ambulances built on chassis that are suitable for the intended application and meet the requirements herein. The ambulances are front or rear wheel driven (4x2) or four wheel driven (4x4) and warranted as specified in Section 9.

    1.1.1 Definition of AmbulanceAn ambulance is a vehicle for emergency medical care which provides: a driver's compartment; a patient compartment to accommodate an emergency medical technician (EMT)/paramedic and two litter patients (one patient located on the primary cot and a secondary patient on a folding litter located on the squad bench) so positioned that the primary patient can be given intensive life-support during transit; equipment and supplies for emergency care at the scene as well as during transport; two-way radio communication; and, when necessary, equipment for light rescue/extrication procedures. The ambulance shall be designed and constructed to afford safety, comfort, and avoid aggravation of the patient's injury or illness.

    1.1.2 This practice may be used to procure an ambulance and the applicable additional systems and equipment.

    1.1.3 Purchasers should follow the ordering data in 9.2 to aid them with the preparation of their procurement specification, requisition, and contract. The purpose of this practice is to describe minimum requirements for design, construction, performance, equipment, testing, and appearance of EMSS ambulances that are authorized to display the Star of Life symbol so as to provide a practical degree of standardization. The reasons for such standardization are to provide ambulances that are easily detected, nationally recognizable, properly constructed, easily maintained, and, when appropriately equipped, will enable Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) to safely and reliably perform their functions as basic and advanced prehospital life support providers as set forth in national EMSS standard training guidelines. These functions include:

    1.1.3.1 Responding to, providing appropriate basic or advanced life support, on-site, to persons reported experiencing acute injury or illness in a pre-hospital setting, and transporting them, while continuing such life support care, to an appropriate medical facility for definitive care.

    1.1.3.2 Providing interhospital critical transport care.

    1.1.3.3 Transporting essential personnel and equipment to and from the site of a multiple medical emergency or a triage site and transporting appropriately triaged patients to designated medical facilities.

    1.1.3.4 Other functions deemed appropriate by EMSS ambulance service managers and approved by designated EMSS medical directors.

    1.2 Star of Life CertificationAmbulance manufacturer/contractor shall furnish the purchaser(s) citing this practice an authenticated certification and label (see 6.19) that certifies a Star of Life ambulance and equipment complying with this practice and applicable amendments (if any) in effect on the date of manufacture (see 7.3). Ambulance vehicles so certified may display the registered Star of Life symbol, as defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), see Fig. 1.

    1.3 ClassificationStar of Life ambulance designs included in this practice may be described in terms of their body type (I, II, or III), class of drive (1 for two rear wheel drive or 2 for four wheel drive), and floor configuration (A for Advanced Life Support or B for Basic Life Support). Such descriptions may be used to define a variety of ambulance designs which are eligible for certification as Star of Life ambulances. (To specify, see 9.2.2 and 9.2.3).

    Note 1—For optional advanced life support (ALS) applications, users should consider specifying a modular (Type I or III) ambulance. Modular ambulances provide additional space and compartmentation for cardiac monitors, drug cases, and so forth. The basic life support (BLS) configuration is standard on all types.

    1.3.1 Type IConventional truck, cab-chassis with modular ambulance body (see Fig. 2).

    Class Configuration
    Two rear wheel driven (4x2)A or B
    Four wheel driven (4x4)A or B

    Configuration A: Elevating cot and squad bench for ALS (see 6.1.5.1 and 6.11.4).
    Configuration B: Elevating cot and squad bench for BLS (see 6.1.5.2).

    1.3.1.1 Type IAD (Additional Dutywith increased GVWR, storage, and payload capacity)A or B or Neonatal, Critical Patient Transport, or A or B with Rescue and Fire Suppression Package (see 6.1.2.1).

    Class Configuration
    Two rear wheel driven (4x2)A or B*
    Four wheel driven (4x4)A or B*

    *As specified by purchaser. The configuration shall provide for a neonatal, critical patient transport, configuration A or B with fire suppression package and rescue capability when specified.

    1.3.2 Type IIStandard van, integral cab-body ambulance (see 6.1.3 and Fig. 3).

    Class Configuration
    Two rear wheel driven (4x2)A** or B
    Four wheel driven (4x4)*A** or B

    *Requires conversion of chassis to four wheel drive (4x4), (see 6.1.6).
    **On a Type II, ALS features are limited, (see 9.2.3).

    1.3.3 Type IIICutaway van, cab-chassis with integral or containerized modular body ambulance (see 6.1.4 and Fig. 4).

    Class Configuration
    Two rear wheel driven (4x2)A or B
    Four wheel driven (4x4)*A or B

    *Requires conversion of chassis to four wheel drive (4x4), (see 6.1.6).
    Configuration A: Elevating cot and squad bench for ALS (see 6.1.5.1 and 6.11.4).
    Configuration B: Elevating cot and squad bench for BLS (see 6.1.5.2).

    1.3.3.1 Type IIIAD (Additional Dutywith increased GVWR, storage, and payload capacity) A or B or neonatal, critical patient transport, or A or B with rescue, or fire suppression package, or both (see 6.1.4.1).

    ClassConfiguration
    Two rear driven (4 × 2)A or B*
    Four wheel driven (4 × 4)A or B*

    *As specified by purchaser. The configuration shall provide for a neonatal, critical patient transport, configuration A or B with fire suppression package and rescue capability when specified.

    1.4 Order of PrecedenceIn the event of a conflict between the text of this practice and the references cited herein, the text of this practice shall take precedence, except where required by law including Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

    1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

    1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.


    FIG. 1 Star of Life Symbol


    FIG. 2 Type I Ambulance


    FIG. 3 Type II Ambulance


    FIG. 4 Type III Ambulance


    2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.

    ASTM Standards

    B117 Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus

    F920 Specification for Minimum Performance and Safety Requirements for Resuscitators Intended for Use With Humans

    F960 Specification for Medical and Surgical Suction and Drainage Systems

    F1177 Terminology Relating to Emergency Medical Services

    F1328 Guide for Training Emergency Medical Technician (Basic) to Prepare Patients for Medical Transportation

    F1517 Guide for Scope of Performance of Emergency Medical Services Ambulance Operations

    F1949 Specification for Medical Oxygen Delivery Systems for EMS Ground Vehicles

    Military Standards

    MIL-STD-1223 Nontactical Wheeled Vehicles, Painting, Identification Marking and Data Plate Standards

    Federal Specifications

    RR-C-901/3 Cylinders Compressed Gas: With Valve or Plug and Cap; ICC3aa

    Federal Standards

    FederalStandardNo.29 Rustproofing of Automotive Vehicles

    Laws and Regulations

    49CFR571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS)

    Other Publications--

    AMDStandard015 Ambulance Oxygen System Test


    ICS Code

    ICS Number Code 43.160 (Special purpose vehicles)

    UNSPSC Code

    UNSPSC Code


    Referencing This Standard

    DOI: 10.1520/F2020-02AR09

    ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.

    Citation Format

    ASTM F2020-02a(2009), Standard Practice for Design, Construction, and Procurement of Emergency Medical Services Systems (EMSS) Ambulances, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2009, www.astm.org

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