Significance and Use
This test method is used by athletic footwear manufacturers and others, both as a tool for development of athletic shoe cushioning systems and as a test of the general cushioning characteristics of athletic footwear products. Adherence to the requirements and recommendations of this test method will provide results that can be compared between different laboratories.
Data obtained by these procedures are indicative of the shock-attenuating properties of athletic shoe cushioning systems under the specific conditions selected.
This test method is designed to provide data on the force versus displacement response of athletic footwear cushioning systems under essentially uniaxial compression conditions at load rates that are similar to those of heel and forefoot impacts during different athletic activities.
The peak or maximum values of force, pressure, displacement, and strain are dependent on the maximum energy applied to the specimen. These values are normalized to provide comparative results for a reference maximum energy applied to the specimen of 5 J (44.2 in.-lbf) or 7 J (61.9 in.-lbf).
Shock-attenuating characteristics are strongly dependent on specimen size and prior history of force application. Therefore, results should be compared only for specimens of the same nominal shoe size and prior impact conditioning. There are no currently acceptable techniques for normalizing results for specimen thickness variations.
Note 2—Impact-attenuating scores determined by this test method, for athletic shoes, may not correlate with the forces experienced by individual users of the shoes.
Note 3—There is no research showing a correlation between scores on this test method and the probability of injury among users of a particular athletic footwear product.
1.1 This test method covers procedures for the measurement of the impact response properties of athletic shoes using Procedure A of Test Method F 1614.
1.2 This test method is limited to tests using a falling weight impact machine, as defined by Procedure A of Test Method F 1614.
1.3 This test method is intended for use on the heel and or forefoot regions of whole, intact athletic shoe cushioning systems. An athletic shoe cushioning system is defined as all of the layers of material between the wearer's foot and the ground surface that are normally considered a part of the shoe. This may include any of the following components: outsole or other abrasion resistant layer, a midsole or other compliant cushioning layer, an insole, insole board, or other material layer overlying the midsole, parts of the upper and heel counter reinforcement which extend beneath the foot, and an insock or other cushioning layer inside the shoe.
1.4 This test method is not intended for use as a test of shoes classified by the manufacturer as children's shoes.
1.5 The type, size or dimensions and thickness of the specimen, and the reference maximum energy applied shall qualify test results obtained by this test method.
1.5.1 Nominal specimen thickness values for this test method are in the range from 10 to 60 mm (0.4 to 2.4 in.). The area of the shoe to be tested must present an approximately circular, flat surface of at least 65 mm (2.6 in.) in diameter for impacting.
1.5.2 The standard value for the reference maximum energy applied by this test method is 5 J (44.2 in.-lbf) for shoes which are subject to moderate impacts during normal use and 7.0 J (61.9 in.-lbf) for shoes which are subject to high impacts during normal use. Other values may be used, if they are stated in the report.
1.6 This test method is not appropriate for measuring the impact response of shoes that are not subjected to moderate impact or high impact in normal use.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
F1614 Test Method for Shock Attenuating Properties of Materials Systems for Athletic Footwear
athletic shoes; cushioning; impact; shock attenuation; sports shoes;
ICS Number Code 61.060 (Footwear)
ASTM International is a member of CrossRef.
Citing ASTM Standards
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