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Significance and Use
5.1 This test method is used by athletic footwear manufacturers and others, both as a tool for development of athletic shoe cushioning systems and as a test of the general cushioning characteristics of athletic footwear products, materials and components. Adherence to the requirements and recommendations of this test method will provide repeatable results that can be compared among laboratories.
5.3 This test method is designed to provide data on the force versus displacement response of athletic footwear cushioning systems under essentially uniaxial impact loads at rates that are similar to those of heel and forefoot impacts during different athletic activities.
5.4 The peak or maximum values of force, acceleration, displacement, and strain are dependent on the total impact energy applied to the specimen. These values are normalized to provide comparative results for a reference value of total energy input.
5.5 Impact attenuation outcomes are strongly dependent on initial conditions (impact mass, impact velocity, contact area, etc.) and on specimen size and the specimen’s prior history of compressive loading. Therefore results should be compared only for specimens of the same nominal size and prior conditioning.
1.1 This test method describes the use of a gravity-driven impact test to measure certain impact attenuation characteristics of cushioning systems and cushioning materials employed in the soles of athletic shoes.
1.2 This test method uses an 8.5 kg mass dropped from a height of 30-70 mm to generate force-time profiles that are comparable to those observed during heel and forefoot impacts during walking, running and jump landings.
1.3 This test method is intended for use on the heel and or forefoot regions of whole, intact athletic shoe cushioning systems. An athletic shoe cushioning system is defined as all of the layers of material between the wearer's foot and the ground surface that are normally considered a part of the shoe. This may include any of the following components: outsole or other abrasion resistant outer layer, a midsole of compliant cushioning materials or structures forming an intermediate layer, an insole, insole board, or other material layers overlying the midsole, parts of the upper and heel counter reinforcement which extend beneath the foot, and an insock, sockliner or other cushioning layers, either fixed or removable, inside the shoe.
1.6.1 The range of tests results is limited by the calibrated range of the test device’s force transducer. Combinations of thin specimens, high specimen stiffness and high total energy input may produce forces that exceed the transducer’s capacity and are hence not measurable. In practice, the specified force transducer range (10 kN) accommodates more than 99 % of typical shoe soles and cushioning material specimens that are 7 mm or more in thickness at a total energy input of 5 Joules.
1.6.2 The nominal value of the total energy input applied by this test method is 5 J for shoes, such as running shoes, which are subject to moderate impacts during normal use. Total energy inputs of 7.0 J and 3.0 J may be used for shoes (e.g basketball shoes) which are subject to higher impact loads during normal use. Other values of total energy input may be used, if they are stated in the report.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
F1614 Test Method for Shock Attenuating Properties of Materials Systems for Athletic Footwear
F2650 Terminology Relating to Impact Testing of Sports Surfaces and Equipment
ICS Number Code 61.060 (Footwear)
UNSPSC Code 53111900(Athletic footwear)