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Significance and Use
5.1 Use this test method to measure the thermal protection provided by different materials, garments, clothing ensembles, and systems to a specified fire exposure (see 3.2.2, 4.1, 10.1.3, and 10.1.4).
5.2 This test method provides a measurement of garment and clothing ensemble performance on a stationary upright manikin of specified dimensions. This test method is used to provide predicted skin burn injury for a specific garment or protective clothing ensemble when exposed to a laboratory simulation of a fire. It does not establish a pass/fail for material performance.
5.3 The measurement of the thermal protection provided by clothing is complex and dependent on the apparatus and techniques used. It is not practical in a test method of this scope to establish details sufficient to cover all contingencies. Departures from the instructions in this test method have the potential to lead to significantly different test results. Technical knowledge concerning the theory of heat transfer and testing practices is needed to evaluate if, and which departures from the instructions given in this test method are significant. Standardization of the test method reduces, but does not eliminate, the need for such technical knowledge. Report any departures along with the results.
1.1 This test method is used to provide predicted human skin burn injury for single layer garments or protective clothing ensembles mounted on a stationary instrumented manikin which are then exposed in a laboratory to a simulated fire environment having controlled heat flux, flame distribution, and duration. The average exposure heat flux is 84 kW/m2 (2 cal/s•cm2), with durations up to 20 seconds.
1.2 The visual and physical changes to the single layer garment or protective clothing ensemble are recorded to aid in understanding the overall performance of the garment or protective ensemble and how the predicted human skin burn injury results can be interpreted.
1.3 The skin burn injury prediction is based on a limited number of experiments where the forearms of human subjects were exposed to elevated thermal conditions. This forearm information for skin burn injury is applied uniformly to the entire body except for the hands and feet. The hands and feet are not included in the skin burn injury prediction.
1.5 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire-hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to inch-pound units or other units commonly used for thermal testing. If appropriate, round the non-SI units for convenience.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D1835 Specification for Liquefied Petroleum (LP) Gases
D5219 Terminology Relating to Body Dimensions for Apparel Sizing
E177 Practice for Use of the Terms Precision and Bias in ASTM Test Methods
E511 Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using a Copper-Constantan Circular Foil, Heat-Flux Transducer
E691 Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method
F1494 Terminology Relating to Protective Clothing
AATCC StandardsTestMethod158 Dimensional Changes on Dry-Cleaning in Perchloroethylene: Machine Method
Canadian StandardsCAN/CGSB-3.14M88 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Propane)
NFPA StandardsNFPA86 Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, 2007 Edition
ICS Number Code 13.340.10 (Protective clothing)
UNSPSC Code 53100000(Clothing)