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Significance and Use
The information presented provides the user with guidance on identification of test methods, and related documents, which are potentially useful to determine fire-test-response characteristics of upholstery products, and the materials of which they are made, present inside detention cells, in detention and correctional facilities. Some information is given about every standard included, so as to allow a judgment as to the potential usefulness of the original method.
The detention environment has some unique features which potentially require the use of modifications of standard test methods or the application of particular techniques. Some guidance to that effect is also presented.
1.1 This is a fire-test-response guide.
1.2 This guide is intended to provide guidance for the selection of test methods that are applicable to determining fire-test-response characteristics of upholstered furniture items contained within a detention cell.
1.3 This guide is intended for use by those interested in assessing the fire properties of the upholstery products and their component materials or composites, within cells and other areas (such as isolation lounges) of detention and correctional occupancies.
1.4 This guide includes standard test methods promulgated by ASTM, NFPA, Underwriters Laboratories, trade associations and government agencies and other proposed test methods. It does not include industrial materials specification tests. The guide indicates some means by which modifications of standard test methods lead to potential achievement of certain testing goals.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to regarded as standard; see for further details. The units given in parentheses are for information only. Some individual standards referenced use inch-pound units for referee decisions.
1.6 This guide contains four types of test methods, namely: (1) generic small-scale methods, (2) specific applications of small-scale test methods to particular products or composites of products, associated with upholstery items, (3) real-scale test methods where actual upholstery products are exposed to heat or flame, and (4) guides explaining the concepts involved with room-scale testing.
1.7 The main fire-test-response characteristics investigated in this guide are: ignitability, ease of extinction, flame spread, heat release, smoke obscuration and toxic potency of smoke.
1.8 This guide measures and describes the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products, or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.9 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.
1.10 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles
D1929 Test Method for Determining Ignition Temperature of Plastics
D2863 Test Method for Measuring the Minimum Oxygen Concentration to Support Candle-Like Combustion of Plastics (Oxygen Index)
D3675 Test Method for Surface Flammability of Flexible Cellular Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
E162 Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
E603 Guide for Room Fire Experiments
E662 Test Method for Specific Optical Density of Smoke Generated by Solid Materials
E906 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using a Thermopile Method
E1321 Test Method for Determining Material Ignition and Flame Spread Properties
E1352 Test Method for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Mock-Up Upholstered Furniture Assemblies
E1353 Test Methods for Cigarette Ignition Resistance of Components of Upholstered Furniture
E1354 Test Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1474 Test Method for Determining the Heat Release Rate of Upholstered Furniture and Mattress Components or Composites Using a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
E1537 Test Method for Fire Testing of Upholstered Furniture
E1546 Guide for Development of Fire-Hazard-Assessment Standards
E1590 Test Method for Fire Testing of Mattresses
E1678 Test Method for Measuring Smoke Toxicity for Use in Fire Hazard Analysis
F1534 Test Method for Determining Changes in Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Cushioning Materials After Water Leaching
F1550 Test Method for Determination of Fire-Test-Response Characteristics of Components or Composites of Mattresses or Furniture for Use in Correctional Facilities after Exposure to Vandalism, by Employing a Bench Scale Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter
ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 97.140 (Furniture)