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Significance and Use
A1.4.1 The purpose of this classification is to establish a consistent terminology system by means of which these ESFD configurations can be classified. It is anticipated that a companion testing standard using this classification system will subsequently be developed.
1.1 This specification provides a characterization of the design and mechanical function of external skeletal fixation devices (ESFDs), test methods for characterization of ESFD mechanical properties, and identifies needs for further development of test methods and performance criteria. The ultimate goal is to develop a specification, which defines performance criteria and methods for measurement of performance-related mechanical characteristics of ESFDs and their fixation to bone. It is not the intention of this specification to define levels of performance or case-specific clinical performance of the devices, as insufficient knowledge is available to predict the consequences of the use of any of these devices in individual patients for specific activities of daily living. Furthermore, it is not the intention of this specification to describe or specify specific designs for ESFDs.
1.2 This specification describes ESFDs for surgical fixation of the skeletal system. It provides basic ESFD geometrical definitions, dimensions, classification, and terminology; material specifications; performance definitions; test methods; and characteristics determined to be important to the in-vivo performance of the device.
1.3 This specification includes a terminology and classification annex and five standard test method annexes as follows:
1.3.1 Classification of External Fixators—Annex A1.
1.3.2 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Connectors—Annex A2.
1.3.3 Test Method for Determining In-Plane Compressive Properties of Circular Ring or Ring Segment Bridge Elements—Annex A3.
1.3.4 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Joints—Annex A4.
1.3.5 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Pin Anchorage Elements—Annex A5.
1.3.6 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator Subassemblies—Annex A6.
1.3.7 Test Method for External Skeletal Fixator/Constructs Subassemblies—Annex A7.
1.4 A rationale is given in Appendix X1.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 The following safety hazards caveat pertains only to the test method portions (Annex A2-Annex A6):
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A938 Test Method for Torsion Testing of Wire
D790 Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials
E4 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines
E122 Practice for Calculating Sample Size to Estimate, With Specified Precision, the Average for a Characteristic of a Lot or Process
E467 Practice for Verification of Constant Amplitude Dynamic Forces in an Axial Fatigue Testing System
E1823 Terminology Relating to Fatigue and Fracture Testing
E1942 Guide for Evaluating Data Acquisition Systems Used in Cyclic Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Testing
F67 Specification for Unalloyed Titanium, for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R50250, UNS R50400, UNS R50550, UNS R50700)
F90 Specification for Wrought Cobalt-20Chromium-15Tungsten-10Nickel Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30605)
F136 Specification for Wrought Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vanadium ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R56401)
F138 Specification for Wrought 18Chromium-14Nickel-2.5Molybdenum Stainless Steel Bar and Wire for Surgical Implants (UNS S31673)
F366 Specification for Fixation Pins and Wires
F543 Specification and Test Methods for Metallic Medical Bone Screws
F544 Reference Chart for Pictorial Cortical Bone Screw Classification
F1058 Specification for Wrought 40Cobalt-20Chromium-16Iron-15Nickel-7Molybdenum Alloy Wire and Strip for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R30003 and UNS R30008)
F1264 Specification and Test Methods for Intramedullary Fixation Devices
F1472 Specification for Wrought Titanium-6Aluminum-4Vanadium Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R56400)
F1713 Specification for Wrought Titanium-13Niobium-13Zirconium Alloy for Surgical Implant Applications (UNS R58130)
ICS Number Code 11.120.20 (Wound dressings. Compresses)
UNSPSC Code 42311500(Bandages and dressings and related products)