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This specification covers the material requirements and characterization techniques for glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials intended for use as bulk porous or powdered surgical implants, or as coatings on surgical devices, but not including drug delivery systems. Glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials should be evaluated thoroughly for biocompatibility before human use. Tests shall be performed to determine the properties of the biomaterials, in accordance with the following test methods: bulk composition; density; flexural strength; Young's modulus; hardness; surface area; bond strength of glass or glass ceramic coating; crystallinity; thermal expansion; and particle size.
This abstract is a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date.
1.1 This specification covers the material requirements and characterization techniques for glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials intended for use as bulk porous or powdered surgical implants, or as coatings on surgical devices, but not including drug delivery systems.
1.2 The biological response to glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials in bone and soft tissue has been demonstrated in clinical use (1-12) and laboratory studies (13-17).
1.3 This specification excludes synthetic hydroxylapatite, hydroxylapatite coatings, aluminum oxide ceramics, alpha- and beta-tricalcium phosphate, and whitlockite.
1.4 Warning—Mercury has been designated by EPA and many state agencies as a hazardous material that can cause central nervous system, kidney, and liver damage. Mercury, or its vapor, may be hazardous to health and corrosive to materials. Caution should be taken when handling mercury and mercury-containing products. See the applicable product Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for details and EPA’s website (http://www.epa.gov/mercury/faq.htm) for additional information. Users should be aware that selling mercury or mercury-containing products, or both, in your state may be prohibited by state law.
2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
C158 Test Methods for Strength of Glass by Flexure (Determination of Modulus of Rupture)
C169 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Soda-Lime and Borosilicate Glass
C373 Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity, and Apparent Specific Gravity of Fired Whiteware Products
C623 Test Method for Youngs Modulus, Shear Modulus, and Poissons Ratio for Glass and Glass-Ceramics by Resonance
C633 Test Method for Adhesion or Cohesion Strength of Thermal Spray Coatings
C693 Test Method for Density of Glass by Buoyancy
C729 Test Method for Density of Glass by the Sink-Float Comparator
C730 Test Method for Knoop Indentation Hardness of Glass
C958 Test Method for Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz by X-Ray Monitoring of Gravity Sedimentation
C1069 Test Method for Specific Surface Area of Alumina or Quartz by Nitrogen Adsorption
C1070 Test Method for Determining Particle Size Distribution of Alumina or Quartz by Laser Light Scattering
E228 Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials With a Push-Rod Dilatometer
F748 Practice for Selecting Generic Biological Test Methods for Materials and Devices
F981 Practice for Assessment of Compatibility of Biomaterials for Surgical Implants with Respect to Effect of Materials on Muscle and Bone
United States PharmacopoeiaHeavyMetals<231> Method I
U.S. Geological Survey MethodCadmium
ICS Number Code 11.040.40 (Implants for surgery, prothetics and orthotics)
UNSPSC Code 42295500(Surgical implants and expanders and extenders and surgical wires and related products)